Evaluation of oxidative enzymes for efficient oxidation of aniline and phenolic pollutants
Tyrosinases, laccases, and peroxidases are three important groups of oxidative enzymes. A characteristic feature of these enzymes is their ability for the oxidation of aniline and phenolic compounds. Literature review reveals some overlap between the organic substrates of these enzymes, but how exactly they are different and how much they have in common from both substrate structure and rate of oxidation points of views. Can they complete functional efficiency of each other when co-immobilized in a multi-enzymes system? To address these questions, edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase, Neurospora crassa laccase, and horseradish peroxidase were examined for the oxidation of azo derivatives of anilines and phenols. These substances were selected because their enzymatic degradation is of interest to environmentalists and can be followed spectrophotometrically. Experiments showed that tyrosinase and laccase had limitations in oxidizing these substances, especially anilines, while peroxidase oxidized all the selected compounds. However, substrates carrying electron-withdrawing substituents had slower oxidation. Co-immobilization of tyrosinase and laccase would be effective against phenolic compounds, but phenols oxidation proceeds faster (between 100 and 500 times) if peroxidase and H2O2 are used. Combination of peroxidase and H2O2, instead of co-immobilization of tyrosinase, laccase, and peroxidase, seems to be more promising for the removal of organic pollutants from contaminated water resources.
KeywordsLaccase Tyrosinase Peroxidase Biodegradation Organic pollutants
Financial support for the laccase and tyrosinase experiments was provided by National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (Ph.D. and master student grants), and financial support for the peroxidase experiments was provided by Center for International Scientific Studies and Collaboration, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of the Islamic Republic of Iran for the ICRP project (Research Contract 259).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
- Adinew B (2012) Textile effluent treatment and decolourization techniques—a review. Bulg J Sci Educ 21:434–456Google Scholar
- Casella L, Monzani E, Nicolis S (2010) Potential applications of peroxidases in the fine chemical industries. In: Torres E, Ayala M (eds) Biocatalysis Based on heme peroxidases: peroxidases as potential industrial biocatalysts, 1sd edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Chiong T, Lau SY, Khor EH, Danquah MK (2014) Enzymatic approach to phenol removal from wastewater using peroxidases. OA Biotechnol 10:3–9Google Scholar
- Fishbein L (1984) Aromatic amines. In: Choudry GG, Hutzinger O (eds) The handbook of environmental chemistry, anthropogenic compounds. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–40Google Scholar
- Haghbeen K, Rastgar Jazii F, Karkhane AA, Shareefi Borojerdi S (2004a) Purification of tyrosinase from edible mushroom. Iran J Biotechnol 2:189–194Google Scholar
- Maciel MJM, Castro e Silva A, Ribeiro HCT (2010) Industrial and biotechnological applications of ligninolytic enzymes of the basidiomycota: a review. Electron J Biotechnol 13:14–15Google Scholar
- Martins AS, Vasconcelos VM, Ferreira TCR, Pereira-Filho ER, Lanza MRV (2015) Simultaneous degradation of diuron and hexazinone herbicides by photo-fenton: assessment of concentrations of H2O2 and Fe2+ by the response surface methodology. J Adv Oxid Technol 18:9–14Google Scholar
- Michałowicz J, Duda W (2007) Phenols—sources and toxicity. Pol J Environ Stud 16:347–362Google Scholar
- Mirazizi F, Bahrami A, Haghbeen K, Shahbani Zahiri H, Bakavoli M, Legge RL (2015) Rapid and direct spectrophotometric method for kinetics studies and routine assay of peroxidase based on aniline diazo substrates. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2:1–8Google Scholar
- Zaharia C, Suteu D (2012) Textile organic dyes—characteristics, polluting effects and separation/elimination procedures from industrial effluents—a critical overview. In: Puzyn T, Mostrag-Szlichtyng A (eds) Organic pollutants ten years after the Stockholm convention-environmental and analytical update. InTech, CroatiaGoogle Scholar