Advertisement

Extraction and recovery of precious metals from electronic waste printed circuit boards by bioleaching acidophilic fungi

  • M. Narayanasamy
  • D. DhanasekaranEmail author
  • G. Vinothini
  • N. Thajuddin
Original Paper

Abstract

Printed circuit boards contain precious metals. They are produced in large volumes, rendering them an important component of the electronic waste. In view of the heterogeneity of the metals present, reprocessing of electronic waste is a heinous task. The present study focused on leaching of valuable metals from electronic waste printed circuit boards using Aspergillus niger DDNS1. The adaptation phases began at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% of fine powder of printed circuit boards with 10% inoculum and were optimized with three effective factors, viz. initial pH, particle size and pulp density, to achieve the maximum simultaneous recovery of the valuable metals. The interactions of these metals were also deciphered using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results indicated that extraction of the precious metals was accomplished mainly through the unique organic acids originating from A. niger DDNS1. The initial pH played an important role in the extraction of the precious metals and the metals precipitate formation. The leaching rate of the metals was generally higher at low powder dosage of printed circuit boards. The toxicity of the printed circuit boards had little effect on two-step bioleaching at the pulp density of 0.1% compared to one-step bioleaching. The two-step bioleaching process was followed under organic acid-forming conditions for the maximum mobilization of metals. Thus, the precious metals from printed circuit boards could be mobilized through fungal bioleaching which promises an important industrial application in recycling of electronic wastes.

Keywords

Aspergillus niger One-step and two-step bioleaching Organic acids Toxic metals Valuable metals 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors thank the Research Foundation of Bharathidasan University for the fellowship (URF) (02492/URF/K7/2016 Date: 09.03.2016) and the Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi, for the award of INSPIRE fellowship [IF 140963/DST/INSPIRE Fellowship/2014/Dt. 30.12.2014].

Supplementary material

13762_2017_1372_MOESM1_ESM.doc (726 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 726 kb)

References

  1. Aung KMM, Ting YP (2004) Bioleaching of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst using Aspergillus niger. J Biotechnol 56:134–567Google Scholar
  2. Bas AD, Yazici EY, Deveci H (2013) Bacteria-assisted leaching of waste computer printed circuit boards. In: Özdag H, Bozkurt V, Ipek H, Bilir K (eds) Proceedings of XIII International mineral processing symposium (IMPS). Department of Mining Engineering Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, pp 435–441Google Scholar
  3. Bhat V, Rao P, Patil Y (2012) Development of an integrated model to recover precious metals from electronic scrap–a novel strategy for e-waste management. Proced Soc Behav Sci 37:397–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borthakur A, Sinha K (2013) Generation of electronic waste in India: current scenario, dilemmas and stakeholders. Afr J Environ Sci Technol 7:899–910Google Scholar
  5. Bosecker K (2006) Bioleaching: metal solubilization by microorganism. FEMS Microbiol Rev 20:591–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brandl H, Bosshard R, Wegmann M (2001) Computer-munching microbes: metal leaching from electronic scrap by bacteria and fungi. Hydrometallurgy 59:319–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bullen HA, Oehrle SA, Bennett AF, Taylor NM, Barton HA (2008) Use of attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to identify microbial metabolic products on carbonate mineral surfaces. Appl Environ Microbiol 74(14):4553–4559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Castro IM, Fietto JLR, Vieira RX, Tropia MJM, Campos LMM, Paniago EB, Brandao RL (2000) Bioleaching of zinc and nickel from silicates using Aspergillus niger cultures. Hydrometallurgy 57:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chatterjee S, Kumar K (2009) Effective electronic waste management and recycling process involving formal and non-formal sectors. Int J Phys Sci 4:893–905Google Scholar
  10. Chauhan R, Upadhyay K (2015) Removal of heavy metal from e-waste: a review. IJCS 3:15–21Google Scholar
  11. Choi M, Cho KS, Kim DS, Kim DJ (2004) Microbial recovery of copper from printed circuit boards of waste computer by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. J Environ Sci Health Part A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 39:2973–2982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cui S, Zhang J (2008) Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: a review. J Hazard Mater 158:228–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Das A, Vidyadhar A, Mehrotra SP (2009) A novel flow sheet for the recovery of metal values from waste printed circuit boards. Resour Conserv Recycl 53:464–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dey S, Jana T (2014) E-waste recycling technology patents filed in India—an analysis. J Intellect Prop Rights 19:315–324Google Scholar
  15. Fischer G, Braun S, Thissen R, Dott W (2006) FT-IR spectroscopy as a tool for rapid identification and intra-species characterization of airborne filamentous fungi. J Microbiol Methods 64:63–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grimm L, Kelly S, Hengstler J, Gobel A, Krull R, Hempel D (2004) Kinetic studies on the aggregation of Aspergillus niger conidia. Biotechnol Bioeng 35:213–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grube M, Muter O, Strikauska S, Gavare M, Limane (2008) Application of FT-IR spectroscopy for control of the medium composition during the biodegradation of nitro aromatic compounds. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 39:1545–1549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ijadi Bajestani M, Mousavi S, Shojaosadati A (2014) Biotechnology Group. Sep Purif Technol 132:309–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ilyas S, Anwar MA, Niazi SB, Ghauri MA (2007) Bioleaching of metals from electronic scrap by moderately thermophilic acidophilic bacteria. Hydrometallurgy 88:180–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kacprzak M, Neczaj E, Okoniewska E (2005) The comparative mycological analysis of wastewater and sewage sludge from selected wastewater treatment plants. Desalination 185:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Karwowska E, Andrzejewska D, Łebkowskaa M, Tabernackaa A, Wojtkowskab M, Telepkob A, Konarzewskab A (2014) Bioleaching of metals from printed circuit boards supported with surfactant-producing bacteria. J Hazard Mater 264:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kavitha AV (2014) Extraction of precious metals from e-waste. J Chem Pharm Sci 974:2115–2124Google Scholar
  23. Khaliq A, Rhamdhani MA, Brooks G, Masood S (2014) Metal extraction processes for electronic waste and existing industrial routes: a review and Australian perspective. Resources 3:152–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Krebs W, Brombacher C, Bosshard PP, Bachofen R, Brandl H (2006) Microbial recovery of metals from solids. FEMS Microbiol Rev 20:605–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lamma O, Swamy A (2015) E-waste, and its future challenges in India. Int J Multidiscip Adv Res Trends 2:12–24Google Scholar
  26. Lee JC, Song HT, Yoo JM (2007) Present status of the recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Korea. Resour Conserv Recycl 50:380–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lovley D (2000) Environmental microbe-metal interactions. Am Soc Microbiol 6:24–65Google Scholar
  28. Luo C, Liu C, Wang Y, Liu X, Li F, Zhang G, Li X (2011) Heavy metal contamination in soils and vegetables near an e-waste processing site, South China. J Hazard Mater 186:481–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Magyarosy A, Laidlaw R, Kilaas R, Echer C, Clark D, Keasling J (2002) Nickel accumulation and nickel oxalate precipitation by Aspergillus niger. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 78:382–388Google Scholar
  30. Mecucci A, Scott K (2002) Leaching and electrochemical recovery of copper, lead and tin from scrap printed circuit boards. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 77:449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Natarajan G, Ting YP (2014) Pretreatment of e-waste and mutation of alkali-tolerant cyanogenic bacteria promote gold biorecovery. Bioresour Technol 152:80–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pant D, Joshi D, Upreti MK, Kotnala RK (2012) Chemical and biological extraction of metals present in E waste: a hybrid technology. Waste Manage 32:979–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Park YJ, Fray DJ (2009) Recovery of high purity precious metals from printed circuit boards. J Hazard Mater 164:1152–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Patel S, Kasture A (2014) E (electronic) waste management using biological systems-overview. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 3:495–504Google Scholar
  35. Patil Y, Bhat V, Rao P (2014) Management of electronic waste by employing combined technological strategies. Glob J Finance Manag 6:545–550Google Scholar
  36. Quinet P, Proost J, Van Lierde A (2005) Recovery of precious metals from electronic scrap by hydrometallurgical processing routes. Miner Metall Process 22:17–22Google Scholar
  37. Santhiya D, Ting YP (2005) Bioleaching of spent refinery processing catalyst using Aspergillus niger with high-yield oxalic acid. J Biotechnol 116:171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Saravanan P, Pakshirajan K, Saha P (2008) Growth kinetics of an indigenous mixed microbial consortium during phenol degradation in a batch reactor. Bioresour Technol 45:205–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sheng PP, Etsell TH (2007) Recovery of gold from computer circuit board scrap using aqua regia. Waste Manag Res 25:380–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tuncuk A, Stazi V, Akcil A, Yazici EY, Deveci H (2012) Aqueous metal recovery techniques from E-scrap: hydrometallurgy in recycling. Miner Eng 25:28–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. UNEP United Nations Environment Programme E-waste (2007) Inventory assessment manual, vol 1. United Nations Environmental Programme, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, International Environmental Technology Centre, OsakaGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang Q, He AM, Gao B (2011) Increased levels of lead in the blood and frequencies of lymphocytic micro-nucleated binucleated cells among workers from an electronic-waste recycling site. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 254:669–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Willner J (2012) Leaching of selected heavy metals from electronic waste in the presence of the At. ferrooxidans bacteria. J Achiev Mater Manuf Eng 55:860–863Google Scholar
  44. Willner J, Kadukova J, Fornalczyk A, Saternus M (2015) Biohydrometallurgical process for metal recovery from electronic waste. Int J Appl Res 54:255–259Google Scholar
  45. Wu HY, Ting YP (2006) Metal extraction from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration fly ash chemical leaching and fungal bioleaching. Enzyme Microb Technol 23:839–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yamane HL, Moraes VT, Espinosa DCR, Tenório JAS (2011) Recycling of WEEE: characterization of spent printed circuit boards from mobile phones and computers. J Waste Manag 31:2553–2558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yang Q, Wang T, Wu T (2009) Heavy metals extraction from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using adapted metal tolerant Aspergillus niger. Bioresource Technol 100:254–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yoo JM, Jeong J, Yoo K, Lee JC, Kim W (2009) Enrichment of the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical separation process using a stamp mill. Waste Manag 29:1132–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhao G, Wang Z, Dong MH, Rao K, Luo J, Wang D, Zha J, Huang S, Xu Y, Ma M (2008) PBBs, PBDEs, and PCBs levels in hair of residents around e-waste disassembly sites in Zhejiang Province, China, and their potential sources. Sci Total Environ 397:46–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bioprocess Technology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, School of Life SciencesBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia

Personalised recommendations