Five trace metals, viz. copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn), in three organs (muscle, gills and liver) of four selected fish species (Mugil cephalus, Eleutheronema tetradactylum, Etroplus suratensis and Daysciaena albida) from Chilika lagoon were studied monthly to assess the concentration level and human health risk via consumption. The average and range of metal concentrations (μg g−1) in flesh of the fish species were found to be: Cu (4.15, 3.47–5.03), Cr (0.25, 0.04–0.63), Fe (19.72, 14.51–27.30), Hg (0.07, 0.05–0.08) and Zn (8.09, 4.41–11.36). The metal concentrations measured in the edible muscles of all fish species were found lower as compared to the contents in liver and gill. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in trace metal accumulation among the organs (p < 0.001), but the difference among the seasons and fish species was insignificant (p > 0.05), with the exception of Zn accumulation (p < 0.05). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the trace metals through the consumption of fish as a dietary component varied widely from 0.48 to 21.33% with respect to the corresponding permissible tolerable daily intake (PTDI). The target hazard quotients (THQs) calculated considering these EDIs for individual metals indicated that the Cr and Cu metals dominantly contributed (avg. THQ = 0.198) to represent the hazard index (HI) than other metals (avg. THQ = 0.029). The average HI determined for all the species was <1 (0.484, ranged 0.255–0.605), indicating that these fish species of Chilika are safe for human consumption.
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The authors are thankful for the funding support to SPMU (State Project Management Unit) under World Bank funded ICZMP (Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project), Odisha, India (WORLD BANK-IDA CREDIT NO.-4765-IN). Thanks are extended to Mr. Bibhuti B. Dora for preparing GIS map and Dr. Pradeep Sethi, CDA for the support during the field campaign. The authors are also grateful to Mr. Gregory Cooper, University of Southampton, UK, for his help during drafting of the manuscript.
Editorial responsibility: M. Abbaspour.
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Parida, S., Barik, S.K., Mohanty, B. et al. Trace metal concentrations in euryhaline fish species from Chilika lagoon: human health risk assessment. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 14, 2649–2660 (2017) doi:10.1007/s13762-017-1334-y
- Estimated daily intake
- Hazard index
- Target hazard quotient
- Trace metals accumulation