Indicators of terrestrial biogenic hydrocarbon contamination and linear alkyl benzenes as land-base pollution tracers in marine sediments

  • A. D. Syakti
  • L. Asia
  • F. Kanzari
  • H. Umasangadji
  • S. Lebarillier
  • B. Oursel
  • C. Garnier
  • L. Malleret
  • Y. Ternois
  • G. Mille
  • P. Doumenq
Original Paper

Abstract

Aliphatics (n-alkanes) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surface sediments collected from 12 sampling points (P1–P12) of sewage discharge to the sea from the wastewater treatment plant of Cortiou (France). Total n-alkanes and PAHs concentrations ranged from 34 to 2,155 and 696 to 10,700 μg kg−1, respectively. Some specific hydrocarbon indexes suggested that terrestrial biogenic inputs are predominant compared to marine sources and that pyrolytic sources derived from wood and biomass combustion contribute to PAHs in the surface sediments. Total linear alkyl benzenes in Cortiou sediments ranged from 42.9 to 502.3 μg kg−1. Low internal and external (I/E) isomers ratio (P0) suggests that inadequately treated sewage is discharged into the marine environment while some environmental processes might change I/E ratios during transport seaward (P1–P12). The high contaminant levels followed by the cumulative concentration of several compounds may lead to elevated toxicity levels in the sediments.

Keywords

Organic contaminants n-Alkanes Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Linear alkyl benzenes Environmental monitoring Wastewater treatment discharge 

Supplementary material

13762_2013_430_MOESM1_ESM.docx (281 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 281 kb)

References

  1. Asia L, Mazouz S, Guiliano M, Doumenq P, Mille G (2009) Occurrence and distribution of hydrocarbons in surface sediments from Marseille Bay (France). Mar Pollut Bull 58:424–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baumard P, Budzinski H, Garrigues P (1998) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean Sea. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:765–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bayona JM, Albaiges J, Solanas AM, Grifoll M (1986) Selective aerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzenes by pure microbial cultures. Chemosphere 15:595–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bellas J, Nieto O, Beiras R (2011) Integrative assessment of coastal pollution: development and evaluation of sediment quality criteria from chemical contamination and ecotoxicological data. Cont Shelf Res 31:448–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benner R, Strom M (1993) A critical evaluation of the analytical blank associated with DOC measurements by high-temperature catalytic oxidation. Mar Chem 41:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blumer M (1957) Removal of elemental sulfur from hydrocarbon fractions. Anal Chem 29:1039–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bourbonniere RA, Meyers PA (1996) Sedimentary geolipid records of historical changes in the watersheds and productivities of Lakes Ontario and Erie. Limnol Oceanogr 41:352–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Budzinski H, Jones I, Bellocq J, Piérard C, Garrigues P (1997) Evaluation of sediment contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Gironde estuary. Mar Chem 58:85–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burton GA Jr, Batley GE, Chapman PM, Forbes VE, Smith EP, Reynoldson T, Schlekat CE, den Besten PJ, Bailer AJ, Green AS, Dwyer RL (2002) A weight-of-evidence framework for assessing sediment (or other) contamination: improving certainty in the decision-making process. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 8:1675–1696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cavalli L, Gellera A, Landone A (1993) LAS removal and biodegradation in a wastewater treatment plant. Environ Toxicol Chem 12:1777–1788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deng W, Li CG, Li SY, Ma YY, Zhang DH (2013) Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediment of mud areas in the East China Sea using diagnostic ratios and factor analysis. Mar Pollut Bull 70:266–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eganhouse RP, Pontolillo J (2008) Susceptibility of synthetic long-chain alkylbenzenes to degradation in reducing marine sediments. Environ Sci Technol 42:6361–6368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eganhouse RP, Sherblom PM (2001) Anthropogenic organic contaminant in the effluent of a combined sewer overflow: impact on Boston Harbor. Mar Environ Res 51:51–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fromme H, Lahrz T, Piloty M, Gebhardt H (2004) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons inside and outside of apartments in an urban area. Sci Total Environ 326:143–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gledhill W, Saeger VW, Trehy ML (1991) An aquatic environmental safety assessment of linear alkylbenzene. Environ Toxicol Chem 10:169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gordon AK, Muller WJ, Gysman N, Marshall SJ, Sparham CJ, O’Connor SM, Whelan MJ (2009) Effect of laundry activities on in-stream concentrations of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in a small rural South African river. Sci Total Environ 407:4465–4471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gustafsson O, Long CM, Macfarlane J, Gschwend PM (2001) Fate of linear alkylbenzenes released to the coastal environment near Boston Harbor. Environ Sci Technol 35:2040–2048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harkov R, Kebbekus B, Bozzelli JW, Lioy PJ, Daisey J (1984) Comparison of selected volatile organic compounds during the summer and winter at urban sites in New Jersey. Sci Total Environ 38:259–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hartmann PC, Quinn JG, Cairns RW, King JW (2004) The distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Narragansett Bay surface sediments. Mar Pollut Bull 48:351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. HERA (2007) HERA-LAS Human and Environmental Risk Assessment: Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates. LAS. CAS No. 68411-30-3, Version 3.0, Oct 2007. http://www.heraproject.com
  21. Hinga KR (2003) Degradation rates of low molecular weight PAH correlate with sediment TOC in marine subtidal sediments. Mar Pollut Bull 46:466–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hung CC, Gong GC, Jiann KT, Yeager KM, Santschi PH, Wade TL, Sericano JL, Hsieh HL (2006) Relationship between carbonaceous materials and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediments of the Danshui River and adjacent coastal areas, Taiwan. Chemosphere 65:1452–1461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hung CC, Gong GC, Chen HY, Hsieh HL, Santschi PH, Wade TL, Sericano JL (2007) Relationships between pesticides and organic carbon fractions in sediments of the Danshui River estuary and adjacent coastal areas of Taiwan. Environ Pollut 148:546–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hung CC, Gong GC, Ko FC, Chen HY, Hsu ML, Wu JM, Peng SC, Nan FH, Yeager KM, Santschi PH (2010) Relationships between persistent organic pollutants and carbonaceous materials in aquatic sediments of Taiwan. Mar Pollut Bull 60:1010–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hung CC, Gong GC, Ko FC, Lee HY, Chen HY, Wu JM, Hsu ML, Peng SC, Nan FH, Santschi PH (2011) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of the East China Sea and their relationship with carbonaceous materials. Mar Pollut Bull 63:464–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Inengite AK, Oforka NC, Leo CO (2013) Source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of a creek around a flow station. Int J Environ Sci Technol 10(3):519–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ishiwatari R, Takada H, Yun SJ, Matsumoto E (1983) Alkylbenzene pollution of Tokyo Bay sediments. Nature 301:599–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Isobe KO, Zakaria MP, Chiem NH, Minh LY, Prudente M, Boonyatumanond R, Saha M, Sarkar S, Takada H (2004) Distribution of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in riverine and coastal environments in South and Southeast Asia. Water Res 38:2449–2459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jeng WL (2006) Higher plant n-alkane average chain length as an indicator of petrogenic hydrocarbon contamination in marine sediments. Mar Chem 102:242–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kanzari F, Syakti AD, Asia L, Malleret L, Mille G, Jamoussi B, Abdelrrabba M, Doumenq P (2012) Aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides in surface sediments from the Arc River and the Berre Lagoon, France. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19(2):559–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Léon VM, Gonzalez-Mazo E, Gomez-Parra A (2000) Handling of marine and estuarine samples for the determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and sulfophenylcarboxylic acids. J Chromatogr A 889:211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liu X, Jia H, Wang L, Qi H, Ma W, Hong W, Guo J, Yang M, Sun Y, Li YF (2013) Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in concurrently monitored surface seawater and sediment along Dalian coast after oil spill. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 90:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Long ER, Morgan LG (1990) The potential for biological effects of sediment-sorbed contaminants tested in the National Status and Trends Program. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS OMA 52. NOAA Office of Oceanography and Marine Assessment, Seattle, WA, p 220Google Scholar
  34. Luo XJ, Chen SJ, Ni HG, Yu M, Mai BX (2008) Tracing sewage pollution in the Pearl River Delta and its adjacent coastal area of South China Sea using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Mar Pollut Bull 56:158–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Micic V, Kruge M, Komer P, Bujalski N, Hofmann T (2010) Organic geochemistry of Danube River sediments from Pančevo (Serbia) to the Iron Gate dam (Serbia–Romania). Org Geochem 41:971–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mille G, Asia L, Guiliano M, Malleret L, Doumenq P (2007) Hydrocarbons in coastal sediments from the Mediterranean sea (Gulf of Fos area, France). Mar Pollut Bull 54:566–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mungray AK, Kumar P (2009) Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in the environment: a review. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 63:981–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Murray AP, Gibbs CF, Kavanagh PE (1987) Linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in sediments of Port Phillip Bay (Australia). Mar Environ Res 23:65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Olivella MA, Ribalta TG, de Febrer AR, Mollet JM, de Las Heras FX (2006) Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in riverine waters after Mediterranean forest fires. Sci Total Environ 355:156–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Page DS, Boehm PD, Douglas GS, Bence AE, Burns WA, Mankiewicz PJ (1999) Pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments record past human activity: a case study in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Mar Pollut Bull 38:247–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Peters CA, Knightes KD, Brown DG (1999) Long-term composition dynamics of PAH-containing NAPLs and implications for risk assessment. Environ Sci Technol 33:4499–4507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rico-Rico A, Temara A, Behrends T, Hermens JLM (2009) Effect of sediment properties on the sorption of C12-2-LAS in marine and estuarine sediments original. Environ Pollut 157:377–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schutzendubel A, Majcherczyk A, Johannes C, Hüttermann A (1999) Degradation of fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene lacks connection to the production of extracellular enzymes by Pleurotus ostreatus and Bjerkandera adusta. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 43:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sikes EL, Uhle ME, Nodder SD, Howard ME (2009) Sources of organic matter in a coastal marine environment: evidence from n-alkanes and their δ13C distributions in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. Mar Chem 113:149–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sprovieri M, Feo ML, Prevedello L, Manta DS, Sammartino S, Tamburrino S, Marsella E (2007) Heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments of the Naples harbour (southern Italy). Chemosphere 67:998–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Syakti AD, Hidayati NV, Hilmi E, Piram A, Doumenq P (2013) Source apportionment of sedimentary hydrocarbons in the Segara Anakan Nature Reserve, Indonesia. Mar Pollut Bull 74:141–148Google Scholar
  47. Tao S, Li X, Yang Y Jr, Coveney RM, Lu X, Chen H, Shen W (2006) Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China. Environ Sci Technol 40:4586–4591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tao S, Liu YN, Xu W, Lang C, Liu SZ, Dou H, Liu WX (2007) Calibration of a passive sampler for both gaseous and particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Technol 41:568–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (1993) Provisional guidance for quantitative risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. EPAy600yRy089. Office of Research and Development, US EPA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  50. Vernoux A, Malleret L, Asia L, Doumenq P, Theraulaz F (2011) Impact of forest fires on PAH level and distribution in soils. Environ Res 111:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Viguri J, Verde J, Irabien A (2002) Environmental assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the Santander Bay, Northern Spain. Chemosphere 48:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Volkman JK, Revill AT, Holdsworth DG, Frederick D (2008) Organic matter sources in an enclosed coastal inlet assessed using lipid biomarkers and stable isotopes. Org Geochem 39:689–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vousdoukas MI, Verney R, Dufois F, Pinazo C, Sauzade D, Meule S, Cann P, Plomaritis TA (2011) Sediment dynamics in the Bay of Marseille, Gulf of Lions (France): hydrodynamic Forcing vs. Bed Erodibility. J Coast Res 27:942–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wagener ALR, Meniconi MFG, Hamacher C, Farias CO, da Silva GC, Gabardo IT, Scofield AL (2012) Hydrocarbons in sediments of a chronically contaminated bay: the challenge of source assignment. Mar Pollut Bull 64:284–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wang XC, Zhang YX, Chen RF (2011) Distribution and partitioning of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different size fractions in sediments from Boston Harbor, United States. Mar Pollut Bull 42:1139–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yunker MB, Macdonald RW, Vingarzan R, Mitchell RH, Goyette D, Sylvestre S (2002) PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios indicators of PAH source and composition. Org Geochem 33:489–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. D. Syakti
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. Asia
    • 2
  • F. Kanzari
    • 2
  • H. Umasangadji
    • 2
  • S. Lebarillier
    • 2
  • B. Oursel
    • 3
  • C. Garnier
    • 3
  • L. Malleret
    • 2
  • Y. Ternois
    • 4
  • G. Mille
    • 2
  • P. Doumenq
    • 2
  1. 1.Fisheries and Marine Sciences DepartmentJenderal Soedirman UniversityPurwokertoIndonesia
  2. 2.LCE, FRE 3416, équipe MPO. Europôle de l’ArboisAix Marseille UniversitéAix-En-Provence Cedex 4France
  3. 3.Laboratoire PROTEEUniversité du Sud Toulon VarLa GardeFrance
  4. 4.C E R E G E/UMR 6635. Europôle de l’ArboisAix Marseille UniversitéAix-En-Provence Cedex 4France

Personalised recommendations