Advertisement

Nitrate removal from groundwater using solid-phase denitrification process without inoculating with external microorganisms

  • X. M. Wang
  • J. L. WangEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Denitrification of groundwater was studied using a laboratory-scale reactor packed with biodegradable snack ware served as both carbon source and biofilm support for microorganisms. The complete removal of 50 mg/L of nitrate-nitrogen was achieved in a 23-day-old reactor with 2.1 h of hydraulic retention time without inoculating with any external microorganisms, which indicates that indigenous microorganisms in groundwater proliferate readily and result in stable biofilm formation onto biodegradable snack ware. Accumulation of nitrite and nitrate residue was detected when hydraulic retention time was lower than 2.1 h. The breakthrough of nitrate-nitrogen up to over 10 mg/L in the effluent water was observed with nitrate removal efficiency reducing to about 75 % when hydraulic retention time was lowered to 1.4 h. The highest rate of denitrification was observed with 1.5 h of hydraulic retention time. Dissolved organic carbon concentration in the effluent water ranged between 10 and 20 mg/L during the stable operation of the reactor, and nitrite-nitrogen concentration was never higher than 0.09 mg/L. Considering its relatively low price and high denitrification rate, biodegradable snack ware can become a good alternative for denitrification process.

Keywords

Biofilm support Carbon source Denitrification rate Hydraulic retention time 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21077014, 59978020), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 20070420357), the Special Funds for Creative Team of Modern Agricultural System of Beijing, and the Special Program for Creative Ability of Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences for their financial support.

References

  1. Aslan S, Turkman A (2005) Combined biological removal of nitrate and pesticides using wheat straw as substrates. Process Biochem 40:935–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aslan S, Turkman A (2006) Nitrate and pesticides removal from contaminated water using biodenitrification reactor. Process Biochem 41:882–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandpi MA, Elliott DJ, Memeny-Mazdek A (1999) Denitrification of groundwater using acetic acid as a carbon source. Water Sci Technol 40:53–59Google Scholar
  4. Behera SK, Rene ER, Murthy DVS (2007) Performance of upflow anoxic bioreactor for wastewater treatment. Int J Environ Sci Tech 4:247–252Google Scholar
  5. Bidhendi GRN, Nasrabadi T, Vaghefi HRS, Hoveidi H (2006) Biological nitrate removal from water resources. Int J Environ Sci Tech 3:281–287Google Scholar
  6. Boley A, Müller WR, Haider G (2000) Biodegradable polymers as solid substrate and biofilm carrier for denitrification in recirculated aquaculture systems. Aquacult Eng 22:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen X, Wu H, Wo F (2007) Nitrate vertical transport in the main paddy soils of Tai Lake region, China. Geoderma 142:136–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elefsiniotis P, Wareham DG, Smith MO (2004) Use of volatile fatty acids from an acid-phase digester for denitrification. J Biotechnol 114:289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ghafari S, Hasan M, Aroua MK (2008) Bio-electrochemical removal of nitrate from water and wastewater—A review. Bioresour Technol 99:3965–3974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gómeza MA, Hontoria E, González-López J (2002) Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on nitrate removal from groundwater using a denitrifying submerged filter. J Hazard Mater B90:267–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Green M, Schnizer M, Tarre S, Bogdan B, Shelef G (1994) Groundwater denitrification using an upflow sludge blanket reactor. Water Res 28:631–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hiraishi A, Khan ST (2003) Application of polyhydroxyalkanoates for denitrification in water and wastewater treatment. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 61:103–109Google Scholar
  13. Hoek JP, Klapwijk A (1987) Nitrate removal from ground water. Water Res 21:989–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jin Z, Chen Y, Ogura N (2004) Denitrification of groundwater using cotton as energy source. J Agro Environ Sci 23:512–515Google Scholar
  15. Kesseru P, Kiss I, Bihari Z, Polyak B (2003) Biological denitrification in a continuous-flow pilot bioreactor containing immobilized Pseudomonas butanovora cells. Bioresour Technol 87:75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mohseni-Bandpi A, Elliot DJ (1998) Groundwater denitrification with alternative carbon sources. Water Sci Technol 38:237–243Google Scholar
  17. Moreno B, Gómez MA, González-López J, Hontoria E (2005) Inoculation of a submerged filter for biological denitrification of nitrate polluted groundwater: a comparative study. J Hazard Mater B117:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ovez B (2006) Batch biological denitrification using Arundo donax, Glycyrrhiza glabra, and Gracilaria verrucosa as carbon source. Process Biochem 41:1289–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ovez B, Ozgen S, Yuksel M (2006) Biological denitrification in drinking water using Glycyrrhiza glabra and Arunda donax as the carbon source. Process Biochem 41:1539–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rocca CD, Belgiorno V, Meric S (2007) Overview of in situ applicable nitrate removal processes. Desalination 204:46–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shrimali M, Singh KP (2001) New methods of nitrate removal from water. Environ Pollut 112:351–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sierra-Alvarez R, Beristain-Cardoso R, Salazar M, Gomez J, Razo-Flores E, Field JA (2007) Chemolithotrophic denitrification with elemental sulfur for groundwater treatment. Water Res 41:1253–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Soares MIM, Abeliovich A (1998) Wheat straw as substrate for water denitrification. Water Res 32:3790–3794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPAC) (2002) Monitoring and analysis methods of water and wastewater, 4th edn. China Environmental Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  25. Volokita M, Abeliovich A, Soares MIM (1996a) Denitrification of groundwater using cotton as energy source. Water Sci Technol 34:379–385Google Scholar
  26. Volokita M, Belkin S, Abeliovich A, Soares MIM (1996b) Biological denitrification of drinking water using newspaper. Water Res 30:965–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vosoughifar HR, Shamsai A, Ebadi T (2005) Discretization of flow contain nitrate in porous media by finite volume technique. Int J Environ Sci Tech 1:317–323Google Scholar
  28. Wang XM, Wang JL (2009) Removal of nitrate from groundwater by heterotrophic denitrification using the solid carbon source. Sci China Ser B Chem 52:236–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang H, Qu J, Lei P (2002) Electrochemical hydrogen and sulfur autotrophic denitrification combined process in drinking water treatment. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae 22:711–715Google Scholar
  30. Wang D, Lin J, Sun R (2003) Optimum nitrogen rate for a high productive rice-wheat system and its impact on the ground water in the Taihu Lake area. Acta Pedol Sin 40:426–432Google Scholar
  31. Zhou H, Wang J, Zhao X (2006) Denitrification using PBS as carbon source and biofilm supporter: effect of pH. Environ Sci 27:290–293Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbial BiotechnologyBeijing Agro-Biotechnology Research Center, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Laboratory of Environmental Technology, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET)Tsinghua UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations