Levels, seasonal variations, and health risks assessment of ambient air pollutants in the residential areas

  • W. C. Zhao
  • J. P. Cheng
  • Z. Y. Yu
  • Q. L. Tang
  • F. Cheng
  • Y. W. Yin
  • W. H. Wang
Original Paper

Abstract

People living in the urban area and the surrounding suburban area have disparities in exposure and health risks due to different levels of ambient air pollutants. The main objective of this study is to investigate the concentrations, seasonal variations, and related health risks of ambient air pollutants (PM10, NO2, and SO2) in urban and suburban areas of Ningbo, China. The results showed that the average PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations in the urban area were 85.2, 49.3, and 37.4 μg/m3, which were 1.13, 1.25, and 1.41 times the values of the suburban area during the period of March 2009 to February 2010. For the potential health risk analysis, the residents have been divided into four age categories namely, infants, children (1 year), children (8–10 years), and adults. The analysis took into account age-specific breathing rates, body weights for different age categories. The results showed that the potential health risks to respiratory disease for all age categories living in urban area were higher than those in suburban area.

Keywords

Ambient air pollutants Exposure Health risks Dose–response 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank the reviewers of this article for their thoughtful suggestions and valuable insights. This work as financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21177087) and the Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau (SEPB) (No. 09-26).

References

  1. Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, Pope CA, Brook JR, Bhatnagar A, Diez-Roux AV, Holguin F, Hong Y, Luepker RV, Mittleman MA, Peters A, Siscovick D, Smith SC, Whitsel L, Kaufman JD (2010) Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: an update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 121(21):2331–2378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown KW, Sarnat JA, Suh HH, Coull BA, Koutrakis P (2009) Factors influencing relationships between personal and ambient concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants. Sci Total Environ 407(12):3754–3765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cao J, Li W, Tan J, Song W, Xu X, Jiang C, Chen G, Chen R, Ma W, Chen B, Kan H (2009a) Association of ambient air pollution with hospital outpatient and emergency room visits in Shanghai, China. Sci Total Environ 407(21):5531–5536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cao J, Shen Z, Chow JC, Qi G, Watson JG (2009b) Seasonal variations and sources of mass and chemical composition for PM10 aerosol in Hangzhou, China. Particuology 7(3):161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castro D, Slezakova K, Delerue-Matos C, Alvim-Ferraz MDC, Morais S, Pereira MDC (2011) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in gas and particulate phases of indoor environments influenced by tobacco smoke: levels, phase distributions, and health risks. Atmos Environ 45(10):1799–1808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cerna M, Jelinek R, Janoutova J, Kotesovec F, Benes I, Leixner M (1998) Risk assessment of the common air pollutants in Teplice, Czech Republic. Toxicol Lett 96–97:203–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chan CK, Yao X (2008) Air pollution in mega cities in China. Atmos Environ 42(1):1–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chao C, Wong K (2002) Residential indoor PM10 and PM2.5 in Hong Kong and the elemental composition. Atmos Environ 36(2):265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen AJ, Anderson HR, Ostro B, Pandey KD, Krzyzanowski M, Künzli N, Gutschmidt K, Pope A, Romieu I, Samet JM, Smith K (2005) The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution. J Toxicol Environ Health Part A 68(13–14):1301–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dockery DW (2009) Health effects of particulate air pollution. Ann Epidemiol 19(4):257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dongarrà G, Manno E, Varrica D, Lombardo M, Vultaggio M (2010) Study on ambient concentrations of PM10, PM10-2.5, PM2.5 and gaseous pollutants. Trace elements and chemical speciation of atmospheric particulates. Atmos Environ 44(39):5244–5257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (2007) Air quality in Ireland 2006. http://www.epa.ie/downloads/pubs/air/quality/epa_air_quality_report_2006.pdf
  13. Feng JL, Chan CK, Fang M, Hu M, He L, Tang X (2006) Characteristics of organic matter in PM2.5 in Shanghai. Chemosphere 64(8):1393–1400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Gilliland F, Vora H, Thomas D, Berhane K, McConnell R, Kuenzli N, Lurmann F, Rappaport E, Margolis H, Bates D, Peters J (2004) The effect of air pollution on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age. N Engl J Med 351(11):1057–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kalaiarasan M, Balasubramanian R, Cheong KWD, Tham KW (2009) Traffic-generated airborne particles in naturally ventilated multi-storey residential buildings of Singapore: vertical distribution and potential health risks. Build Environ 44(7):1493–1500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kan H, London SJ, Chen G, Zhang Y, Song G, Zhao N, Jiang L, Chen B (2008) Season, sex, age, and education as modifiers of the effects of outdoor air pollution on daily mortality in Shanghai, China: the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) Study. Environ Health Perspect 116(9):1183–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Klinmalee A, Srimongkol K, Kim ONT (2009) Indoor air pollution levels in public buildings in Thailand and exposure assessment. Environ Monit Assess 156(1–4):581–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kulshrestha AP, Satsangi PG, Masih J, Tanej A (2009) Metal concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 particles and seasonal variations in urban and rural environment of Agra, India. Sci Total Environ 407(24):6196–6204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kumar R, Nagar JK, Kumar H, Kushwah AS, Meena M, Kumar P, Raj N, Singhal MK, Gaur SN (2007) Association of indoor and outdoor air pollutant level with respiratory problems among children in an industrial area of Delhi, India. Arch Environ Occup Health 62(2):75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li L, Chen C, Fu J, Huang C, Streets D, Huang H, Zhang G, Wang Y, Jang C, Wang H, Chen Y, Fu J (2011) Air quality and emissions in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Atmos Chem Phys 11(4):1621–1639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McCormack MC, Breysse PN, Hansel NN, Matsui EC, Tonorezos ES, Curtin-Brosnan J, Williams DL, Buckley TJ, Eggleston PA, Diettea GB, Diette GB (2008) Common household activities are associated with elevated particulate matter concentrations in bedrooms of inner-city Baltimore pre-school children. Environ Res 106(2):148–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mi YH, Norbäck D, Tao J, Mi YL, Ferm M (2006) Current asthma and respiratory symptoms among pupils in Shanghai, China: influence of building ventilation, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and formaldehyde in classrooms. Indoor Air 16(6):454–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Monn C (2001) Exposure assessment of air pollutants: a review on spatial heterogeneity and indoor/outdoor/personal exposure to suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Atmos Environ 35(1):1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Morawska L, He C, Hitchins J, Gilbert D, Parappukkaran S (2001) The relationship between indoor and outdoor airborne particles in the residential environment. Atmos Environ 35(20):3463–3473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Neuberger M, Moshammer H, Kundi M (2002) Declining ambient air pollution and lung function improvement in Austrian children. Atmos Environ 36(11):1733–1736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pandey JS, Kumar R, Devotta S (2005) Health risks of NO2, SPM and SO2 in Delhi (India). Atmos Environ 39(36):6868–6874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pekey B, Bozkurt ZB, Pekey H, Doĝan G, Zararsiz A, Efe N, Tuncel G (2010) Indoor/outdoor concentrations and elemental composition of PM10/PM2.5 in urban/industrial areas of Kocaeli City, Turkey. Indoor Air 20(2):112–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Salvi S (2007) Health effects of ambient air pollution in children. Paediatr Respir Rev 8(4):275–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schwartz J (2004) Air pollution and children’s health. Pediatrics 113(4 II), 1037–1043.Google Scholar
  30. Stranger M, Potgieter-Vermaak SS, Grieken RV (2009) Particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in residences in Antwerp, Belgium. Sci Total Environ 407(3):1182–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tokyo Metropolitan Government Bureau of General Affairs (2007) Tokyo Statistical Yearbook 2006. http://www.toukei.metro.tokyo.jp/tnenkan/tn-eindex.htm
  32. Venners SA, Wang B, Xu Z, Schlatter Y, Wang L, Xu X (2003) Particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and daily mortality in Chongqing, China. Environ Health Perspect 111(4):562–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wan J, Lin M, Chan C, Zhang Z, Engling G, Wang X, Chan I, Li S (2011) Change of air quality and its impact on atmospheric visibility in central-western Pearl River Delta. Environ Monit Assess 172(1–4):339–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang X, Bi X, Sheng G, Fu J (2006) Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China. Sci Total Environ 366(1):124–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. WHO (2005) Air quality guideline global update. http://www.euro.who.int/_data/assets/pdf_file/0005/78638/E90038.pdf
  36. Wichmann J, Lind T, Nilsson MA-M, Bellander T (2010) PM2.5, soot and NO2 indoor–outdoor relationships at homes, pre-schools and schools in Stockholm, Sweden. Atmos Environ 44(36):4536–4544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhao W, Cheng J, Guo M, Cao Q, Yin Y, Wang W (2011) Ambient air particulate matter in the yangtze river delta region, China: spatial, annual, and seasonal variations and health risks. Environ Eng Sci 28(11):795–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhu Y, Hinds WC, Kim S, Sioutas C (2002) Concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles near a major highway. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 52(9):1032–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. C. Zhao
    • 1
  • J. P. Cheng
    • 1
  • Z. Y. Yu
    • 1
  • Q. L. Tang
    • 1
  • F. Cheng
    • 1
  • Y. W. Yin
    • 1
  • W. H. Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations