Soil chemical changes resulting from irrigating with petrochemical effluents

  • N. K. Sharma
  • S. Bhardwaj
  • P. K. Srivastava
  • Y. J. Thanki
  • P. K. Gadhia
  • M. Gadhia
Original Paper

Abstract

Irrigating food crops with treated wastewater is a popular management option in India. This study evaluated the impacts of land application of treated petrochemical effluent on soil chemical properties. Soil samples were collected from different depths from sites irrigated with petrochemical effluent for 2 years and from control sites. The effluent collected was analysed for different physic–chemical properties and its impact on Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd) growth. 100% concentrated effluent was used for the study and compared with the control. It was observed that application of effluent significantly increased the major cations and anions in the field. On the basis of the study, it may be suggested that treated petrochemical effluent can be used as an alternate source for irrigating crops as it increases the nutrient content of the soil. The overall application indicates a lavishing growth of L. siceraria crop in petrochemical irrigated soil than control sites. This study provides information for better understanding of changes in soil properties due to land application of petrochemical effluent. These changes must be considered in developing possible criteria for preserving delicate ecosystems.

Keywords

Soil quality Heavy metal Petrochemical industries Wastewater 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors are highly thankful to the Department of Biosciences, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat, Gujarat, India for providing the necessary facilities for the research. Authors would also like to thanks Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, India for their help and support during the analysis.

References

  1. Abdelwahab O, Amin N, El-Ashtoukhy E (2009) Electrochemical removal of phenol from oil refinery wastewater. J Hazard Mater 163(2–3):711–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-A’ama MS, Nakhla G (1995) Wastewater reuse in Jubail. Saudi Arab Water Res 29(6):1579–1584Google Scholar
  3. Al-Jayyousi OR (2003) Greywater reuse: towards sustainable water management. Desalination 156(1–3):181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson J (2003) The environmental benefits of water recycling and reuse. Water Sci Tech Water Supply 3(4):1–10Google Scholar
  5. Angelakis A, Bontoux L (2001) Wastewater reclamation and reuse in Eureau countries. Water Pol 3(1):47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. APHA, AWWA, WEF (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and the Water Environment Federation, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Aziz O, Manzar M, Inam A (1995) Suitability of petrochemical industry wastewater for irrigation. J Environ Sci Health 30(4):735–751 (Part A)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aziz O, Inam A, Siddiqi R (1996) Long term effects of irrigation with petrochemical industry wastewater. J Environ Sci Health 31(10):2595–2620 (Part A)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bond W (1998) Effluent irrigation-an environmental challenge for soil science. Australian J. Soil Res. 36(4):543–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bruland KW, Franks RP, Knauer GA, Martin JH (1979) Sampling and analytical methods for the determination of copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel at the nanogram per liter level in sea water. Anal Chim Acta 105:233–245Google Scholar
  11. Campbell CJ (2001) The imminent peak of world oil production: speech to the House of Commons. All-Party Committee, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Chakrabarti C, Chakrabarti T (1988) Effects of irrigation with raw and differentially diluted sewage and application of primary settled sewage-sludge on wheat plant growth, crop yield, enzymatic changes and trace element uptake. Environ Pollut 51(3):219–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Day A, McFadyen J, Tucker T, Cluff C (1979) Wastewater helps the barley grow. Water and Wastes Engineering August 1979, p 26–28 OWRT-A-050-ARIZ (2), 14–31-0001–5003Google Scholar
  14. Day A, McFadyen J, Tucker T, Cluff C (1981) Safflower grown with municipal wastewater and pump water. J Arizona–Nevada Academy of Sci 16(2):62–64Google Scholar
  15. Devold H (2007) Oil and gas production handbook: an introduction to oil and gas production. ABB Oil and GasGoogle Scholar
  16. Fano E, Brewster M, Thompson T (1986) Managing water quality in developing countries. Wiley Online Library, USAGoogle Scholar
  17. Friedler E (2001) Water reuse- an integral part of water resources management: Israel as a case study. Water Pol 3(1):29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ganeshamurthy A, Varalakshmi L, Sumangala H (2008) Environmental risks associated with heavy metal contamination in soil, water and plants in urban and periurban agriculture. J Horticultur Sci 3(1):1–29Google Scholar
  19. Greene MC, Delaney RH, Moyer JL, Borrelli J (1980) Forage production utilizing cheese plant effluent under high-altitude conditions. J Water Pollut Cont Federat 52(12):2855–2864Google Scholar
  20. Hedges LV, Olkin I (1985) Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Hegg BA, Rakness KL, Schultz JR (1978) Evaluation of operation and maintenance factors limiting municipal wastewater treatment plant performance. J Water Pollut Cont Federat 50(3):419–426Google Scholar
  22. Herpin U, Gloaguen TV, Da Fonseca AF, Montes CR, Mendonca FC, Piveli RP, Breulmann G, Forti MC, Melfi AJ (2007) Chemical effects on the soil–plant system in a secondary treated wastewater irrigated coffee plantation: a pilot field study in Brazil. Agri Water Manag 89(1–2):105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hirsch RL, Bezdek R, Wendling R (2005) Peaking of world oil production. Impacts, Mitigation and Risk Management. NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  24. Hussain IR, Hanjra L, Marikar M, van der Hoek F (2002) Wastewater use in agriculture: review of impacts and methodological issues in valuing impacts. IwmiGoogle Scholar
  25. Joseph P, Joseph A (2009) Microbial enhanced separation of oil from a petroleum refinery sludge. J Hazard Mater 161(1):522–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kerr RA (1998) The next oil crisis looms large–and perhaps close. Science 281(5380):1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee L, Hu J, Ong S, Ng W, Ren J, Wong S (2004) Two-stage SBR for treatment of oil refinery wastewater. Water Sci Tech J Internat Assoc Water Pollut Res 50(10):243Google Scholar
  28. Lindsay WL (1978) Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper1. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42(3):421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Magesan G, Williamson J, Yeates G, Lloyd-Jones AR (2000) Wastewater C:N ratio effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and potential mechanisms for recovery. Bioresour Tech 71(1):21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nagelkerke NJD (1991) A note on a general definition of the coefficient of determination. Biometrika 78(3):691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ne O, Jc I (2005) Risk and health implications of polluted soils for crop production. Afr J Biotechnol 4(13):1521–1524Google Scholar
  32. NEERI (1991) Manual on water and waste water analysis. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  33. O’Connor G, Elliott H, Bastian R (2008) Degraded water reuse: an overview. J Environ Qual. 37(5)Google Scholar
  34. Obayori OS, Adebusoye SA, Adewale AO, Oyetibo GO, Oluyemi OO, Amokun RA, Ilori MO (2009) Differential degradation of crude oil (Bonny Light) by four pseudomonas strains. J Environ Sci 21(2):243–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ojumu T, Bello O, Sonibare J, Solomon B (2005) Evaluation of microbial systems for bioremediation of petroleum refinery effluents in Nigeria. Afr J Biotech 4(1)Google Scholar
  36. Parnas H (1975) Model for decomposition of organic material by microorganisms. Soil Biol Biochem 7(2):161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pessala P, Schultz E, Nakari T, Joutti A, Herve S (2004) Evaluation of wastewater effluents by small-scale biotests and a fractionation procedure. Ecotoxic Environ Safe 59(2):263–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pound CE, Crites RW (1973) Wastewater treatment and reuse by land application. For sale by the Supt. of Docs., US Govt. Print. OffGoogle Scholar
  39. Rajesh D, Sunil C, Lalita R, Sushila S (2009) Impact assessment of soils treated with refinery effluent. Europ J Soil Bio 45(5–6):459–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Reddy K, Agami M, Tucker J (1990) Influence of phosphorus on growth and nutrient storage by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) plants. Aqua Botany 37(4):355–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Refaat AA (2009) Correlation between the chemical structure of biodiesel and its physical properties. Int J Environ Sci Tech 6(4):677–694Google Scholar
  42. Richards L (1954) USDA Handbook No. 60: diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soilsGoogle Scholar
  43. Sastry C, Sundaramoorthy S (1996) Industrial use of fresh water vis-a-vis reclaimed municipal wastewater in Madras. India Desalination 106(1–3):443–448Google Scholar
  44. Schmidt CJ, Kugelman I, Clements EV (1975) Municipal wastewater reuse in the US. J Water Pollut Control Feder 47(9):2229–2245Google Scholar
  45. Sharma NK (2010) Studies on morpho-histology and effect of treated effluent of ONGC on some agricultural plants. PhD Thesis, Department of Biosciences, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat, Gujarat, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  46. Singh R, Agrawal M (2008) Potential benefits and risks of land application of sewage sludge. Waste Manage 28(2):347–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Speight JG (2007) The chemistry and technology of petroleum, vol 114. CRCGoogle Scholar
  48. Speight JG, Knovel (2002) Handbook of petroleum product analysis. WileyGoogle Scholar
  49. Srivastava P, Mukherjee S, Gupta M (2008) Groundwater quality assessment and its relation to land use/land cover using remote sensing and GIS. International Conference on Groundwater-08, organized by Rajasthan University, March 19–22, 2008, Jaipur, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  50. Srivastava PK, Mukherjee S, Gupta M, Singh S (2011) Characterizing monsoonal variation on water quality index of River Mahi in India using geographical information system. Water Qual Expo Health 2(3):193–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tandi N, Nyamangara J, Bangira C (2005) Environmental and potential health effects of growing leafy vegetables on soil irrigated using sewage sludge and effluent: a case of Zn and Cu. J Environ Sci Health 39(3):461–471 (Part B)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Toze S (2006) Reuse of effluent water-benefits and risks. Agri Water Manage 80(1–3):147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wong JM, Hung YT (2004) Treatment of oilfield and refinery wastes. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. p. 131Google Scholar

Copyright information

© CEERS, IAU 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. K. Sharma
    • 1
  • S. Bhardwaj
    • 2
  • P. K. Srivastava
    • 1
    • 3
  • Y. J. Thanki
    • 4
  • P. K. Gadhia
    • 4
  • M. Gadhia
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Biological and Environmental ScienceN. V. Patel College of Pure and Applied SciencesAnandIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyBareily CollegeBareilyIndia
  3. 3.Water and Environment Management Research Centre, Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  4. 4.Department of BiosciencesV.N. South Gujarat UniversitySuratIndia

Personalised recommendations