Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation in improving visual and auditory attention in ischemic stroke patients

  • 21 Accesses


The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a cognitive rehabilitation program in improving the visual and auditory attention performance in stroke patients. The research method was quasi-experimental with a pre-intervention, post-intervention and follow-up design and control group. Twenty ischemic stroke patients with attention disorder were randomly classified into experimental and control groups. Cognitive evaluation of patients, including pre-intervention, immediately and 6 weeks after the intervention, was performed by the IVA + Plus (Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test). The experimental group received a cognitive rehabilitation program as 1-h sessions per week for 8 weeks, but the control group received no intervention. The results indicated significant effects of a cognitive rehabilitation program on the auditory (p = 0.002) and visual (p = 0.009) attention as well as the 6-week follow-up after the intervention, and it improved visual and auditory attention in stroke patients in the experimental group. The effectiveness of a cognitive rehabilitation program improved attention performance in stroke patients and had a positive effect on visual and auditory attention performance in ischemic stroke patients.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Connor B, Wing A, Humphreys G, Bracewell R, Harvey D (2002) Errorless learning using haptic guidance: research in cognitive rehabilitation following stroke. In: 4th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies At: Veszprém, Hungary

  2. 2.

    Sajjad A, Saeed Mirza S, Portegies MLP, Bos MJ, Hofman A, Koudstaal PJ, Tiemeier H, Ikram MA (2015) Subjective memory complaints and the risk of stroke. Stroke 46:170–175. https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.006616

  3. 3.

    Yoo C, Yong M, Chung J, Yang Y (2015) Effect of computerized cognitive rehabilitation program on cognitive function and activities of living in stroke patients. J Phys Ther Sci 27(8):2487. https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.27.2487

  4. 4.

    Freitas MID, Porto CS, Oliveira MO, Brucki SMD, Mansur LL, Nitrini R, Radanovic M (2018) Linguistic abilities in major vascular cognitive impairment: a comparative study with Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neurol Belg 118:465–473. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13760-018-0977-x

  5. 5.

    Fiedorova D, Krulova P, Ressner R, Jaremova V, Slonkova J, Bar M, Skoloudik D, Srovnalova HZ (2018) Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination in Nondemented patients after stroke. Neuropsychiatry 8(2):505–512. https://doi.org/10.4172/Neuropsychiatry.1000372

  6. 6.

    American Association of Neuroscience Nurses (AANN) (2004) Guide to the care of the patient with Ischemic Stroke. AANN Reference Series for Clinical Practice. ESP Pharma, Edison

  7. 7.

    Gil-Pages M, Solana J, Sanchez-Carrion R, Tormos JM, Ensenat-Cantallops A, Garcia-Molina AA (2018) Customized home-based computerized cognitive rehabilitation platform for patients with chronic-stage stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 19(1):191. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-2577-8

  8. 8.

    Hyndman D, Ashburn A (2003) People with stroke living in the community: attention deficits, balance, ADL ability and falls. Disabil Rehabil 25(15):817–822. https://doi.org/10.1080/0963828031000122221

  9. 9.

    Barker-Collo S, Feigin V, Parag V, Lawes C, Senior H (2010) Auckland stroke outcomes study part 2: cognition and functional outcomes 5 years poststroke. Neurology 75(18):1608–1616. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181fb44c8

  10. 10.

    Das Nair R, Cogger H, Worthington E, Lincoln NB (2017) Cognitive rehabilitation for memory deficits after stroke: an updated review. Stroke 48:28–29. https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.015377

  11. 11.

    Sahragard M, Alipour A, Zare H, Roshan R, Moodi M (2018) Effectiveness of powell’s cognitive rehabilitation with Neurofeedback in improving executive functions, memory, and attention to veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Iran J War Public Health 10(4):187–193. https://doi.org/10.29252/ijwph.10.4.187

  12. 12.

    Bowen A, Lincoln N (2007) Cognitive rehabilitation for spatial neglect following stroke. Cochrane Libr. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003586.pub2

  13. 13.

    Das Nair R, Lincoln NB (2007) Cognitive rehabilitation for memory deficits following stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD002293. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002293.pub2

  14. 14.

    Lincoln N, Majid M, Weyman N (2000) Cognitive rehabilitation for attention deficits following stroke. Cochrane Libr. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002842

  15. 15.

    Chen CX, Mao RH, Li SX, Zhao YN, Zhang M (2015) Effect of visual training on cognitive function in stroke patients. Int J Nurs Sci 4(2):329–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2015.11.002

  16. 16.

    Loetscher T, Lincoln NB (2013) Cognitive rehabilitation for attention deficits following stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5:CD002842. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002842.pub2

  17. 17.

    Liu Q, Zhu X, Ziegler A, Shi J (2016) Corrigendum: the effects of inhibitory control training for preschoolers on reasoning ability and neural activity. Sci Rep 6(3):1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep20296

  18. 18.

    Elias KMIF, Moura-Ribeiro MVL (2013) Stroke caused auditory attention deficits in children. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 71(1):11–17. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0004-282X2012005000018

  19. 19.

    Sandford JA, Fine AH, Goldman L (1995) Validity study of the IVA: a visual and auditory cpt. Presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New York, NY

  20. 20.

    Kingston DA, Ahmed AG, Gray J, Bradford J, Seto MC (2013) The assessment and diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adult forensic psychiatric outpatients. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 35:293–300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-013-9346-5

  21. 21.

    Powell T (2017) The brain injury work book, exercises for cognitive rehabilitation, 2nd edn. Routledge, Abingdon

  22. 22.

    Livingston RB (1967) Brain mechanisms in conditioning and learning. Paper presented at the Neurosciences research symposium summaries, London.

  23. 23.

    Keller TA, Just MA (2016) Structural and functional neuroplasticity in human learning of spatial routes. Neuroimage 125(12):256–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.10.015

  24. 24.

    Webster BR, Celnik PA, Cohen LG (2006) Noninvasive brain stimulation in stroke rehabilitation. NeuroRx 3(4):474–481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurx.2006.07.008

  25. 25.

    Cicerone KD, Dahlberg C, Malec JF et al (2005) Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: updated review of the literature from 1998 through 2002. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 86(8):1681–1692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2005.03.024

  26. 26.

    Hara Y (2015) Brain plasticity and rehabilitation in stroke patients. J Nippon Med Sch 82(1):4–13. https://doi.org/10.1272/jnms.82.4

Download references


No funding.

Author information

Correspondence to Samira Hasanzadeh Pashang.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interest declared.

Ethical considerations

The study was approved by the Ethical Committee of Payame Noor University (IR.PNU.REC.1397.076).

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hasanzadeh Pashang, S., Zare, H., Alipour, A. et al. The effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation in improving visual and auditory attention in ischemic stroke patients. Acta Neurol Belg (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13760-020-01288-4

Download citation


  • Cognitive
  • Rehabilitation
  • Stroke
  • Ischemia
  • Visual
  • Auditory
  • Attention