The current and emerging therapeutic approaches in drug-resistant epilepsy management

  • Amir Mehdizadeh
  • Mohammad Barzegar
  • Sohrab Negargar
  • Azita Yahyavi
  • Sina RaeisiEmail author
Review article


Epilepsy is a neurologic disorder consisting of recurrent spontaneous seizures. Antiepileptic drugs administration is the most commonly used therapeutic strategy in the management of epilepsy. However, 20–30% of epilepsy patients have seizure episodes that are not controlled by these medicines (drug-resistant epilepsy). The management of drug-resistant epilepsy, especially in the children, is challenging and can cause economic and social problems, and lower the patients’ quality of life, cognition, and mood. Several therapeutic approaches for drug-resistant epilepsy are available including surgical methods, neurostimulation treatments, and diet therapies which lead to diminishing the epileptic seizures. An increasing number of novel and potential therapeutic approaches such as gene therapy, gene editing, cell therapy, exosome therapy, and molecular network targeting have also been explored. The present study is aimed to review these current and emerging therapeutic approaches for drug-resistant epilepsy.


Drug-resistant epilepsy Surgery Diet therapy Gene therapy Cell therapy Exosome therapy 



This work was supported by Pediatric Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Belgian Neurological Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Endocrine Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  2. 2.Pediatric Health Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.Cardiovascular Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  4. 4.Department of Anesthesia, Shohada HospitalTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

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