Migraine and asthma are comorbid chronic disorders with episodic attacks thought to involve inflammatory and neurological mechanisms. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationship of asthma features between the asthma patients with migraine and those without migraine headache. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2015 to June 2016. Physician-diagnosed asthma patients aged 18 years and above were included. Demographic data, pulmonary function test and treatment of asthma were recorded. Asthma control was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT) and asthma control questionnaire (ACQ). The diagnosis of migraine was made by the neurologist with face-to face examinations based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition beta (ICHD-III-beta) criteria. Data about the age at onset, frequency of headache attacks, duration of headache attack, the presence of aura, and severity of headache were recorded. The severity of headache was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS). Overall 121 asthma patients were included in this study. Migraine was found to be present in 32 (26.4%) of patients. No statistically significant difference was found between asthma group and asthma with migraine groups in terms of pulmonary function test parameters. The mean ACT score in asthma with migraine patients group was significantly lower than the asthma groups. Morever, in the group asthma with migraine, a negative significant correlations were found between ACT scores with VAS scores. This study demonstrates that migraine headache may be associated with poor asthma control. On the other hand, it should not be forgotten that ACT is a subjective test and can be affected from by many clinical parameters.
Asthma Asthma control test Migraine Visuale analog scale
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The local ethics committee approved the present study.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. Global initiative for asthma. Accessed November 15 (2015), http://www.ginasthma.org
Smitherman TA, Burch R, Sheikh H, Loder E (2013) The prevalence, impact, and treatment of migraine and severe headaches in the United States: a review of statistics from national surveillance studies. Headache 53:427–436CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Tepe N, Bolay H (2011) Migren Başağrısı. Nörolojide Yeni Ufuklar Başağrıları içinde. 1. Baskı. Güneş Tıp Kitabevleri, Ankara, pp 33–62Google Scholar
Peroutka SJ (2014) What turns on a migraine? A systematic review of migraine precipitating factors. Curr Pain Headache Rep 18:454CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Signs V (2011) Asthma prevalence, disease characteristics, and self-management education: United States, 2001–2009. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60:547–552Google Scholar
Martin VT, Fanning KM, Serrano D, Buse DC et al (2016) Asthma is a risk factor for new onset chronic migraine: results from the American Migraine prevalence and prevention Study. Headache 56(1):118–131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Rao CK, Moore CG, Bleecker E, Busse WW et al (2013) Characteristics of perimenstrual asthma and its relation to asthma severity and control: data from the severe asthma research Program. Chest 143:984–992CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Davey G, Sedgwick P, Maier W, Visick G, Strachan DP, Anderson HR (2002) Association between migraine and asthma: matched case-control study. Br J Gen Pract 52:723–727PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Aamodt AH, Stovner LJ, Langhammer A, Hagen K, Zwart JA (2007) Is headache related to asthma, hay fever, and chronic bronchitis? The Head-HUNT Study. Headache 47:204–212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
American Thoracic Society (1987) Standards for diagnosis and care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 136:225–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller MR, Hankinson J, Brusasco V, Burgos F et al (2005) Standardisation of spirometry. Eur Respir J 26(2):319–338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Nathan RA, Sorkness CA, Kosinski M, Schatz M et al (2004) Development of the asthma control test: a survey for assessing asthma control. J Allergy Clin Immunol 113(1):59–65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS) (2013) The international classification of headache disorders: 3rd edition (beta version). Cephalalgia 33:629–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilkinson IA, Halliday JA, Henry RL, Hankin RG et al (1994) Headache and asthma. J Paediatr Child Health 30:253–256CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Ozge A, Ozge C, Ozturk C, Kaleagasi H et al (2006) The relationship between migraine and atopic disorders-the contribution of pulmonary function tests and immunological screening. Cephalalgia 26:172–179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Kaleagasi H, Ozgur E, Ozge C, Özge A (2011) Bronchial hyper-reactivity in migraine without aura: is it a new clue for inflammation? Headache 51:426–431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Theoharides TC, Donelan J, Kandere-Grzybowska K, Konstantinidou A (2005) The role of mast cells in migraine pathophysiology. Brain Res Rev 49:65–76CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Macleod J, Davey Smith G, Heslop P, Metcalfe C et al (2002) Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease: empirical demonstration of bias in a prospective observational study of Scottish men. BMJ 324:1247–1251CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Grzelewska-Rzymowska I, Bogucki A, Szmidt M, Kowalski ML et al (1985) Migraine in aspirin-sensitive asthmatics. Allergol Immunopathol 13:13–16Google Scholar
Nakagome K, Nagata M (2011) Pathogenesis of airway inflammation in bronchial asthma. Auris Nasus Larynx 38:555–563CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Mortimer MJ, Kay J, Gawkrodger DJ, Jaron A, Barker DC (1993) The prevalence of headache and migraine in atopic children: an epidemiological study in general practice. Headache 33:427–431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Markowitz S, Saito K, Moskowitz MA (1988) Neurogenically mediated plasma extravasation in dura mater: effect of ergot alkaloids. A possible mechanism of action in vascular headache. Cephalalgia 8:83–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Trankner D, Hahne N, Sugino K, Hoon MA, Zuker C (2014) Population of sensory neurons essential for asthmatic hyperreactivity of inflamed airways. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:11515–11520CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Obermann M, Yoon MS, Dommes P, Kuznetsova J et al (2007) Prevalence of trigeminal autonomic symptoms in migraine: a population-based study. Cephalalgia 27:504–509CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Schatz M, Sorkness CA, Li JT, Marcus P et al (2006) Asthma control test: reliability, validity, and responsiveness in patients not previously followed by asthma specialists. J Allergy Clin Immunol 117:549–556CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Khalili B, Boggs PB, Shi R, Bahna SL (2008) Discrepancy between clinical asthma control assessment tools and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 101:124–129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Shirai T, Furuhashi K, Suda T, Chida K (2008) Relationship of the asthma control test with pulmonary function and exhaled nitric oxide. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 101:608–613CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Melosini L, Dente FL, Bacci E, Bartoli ML et al (2012) Asthma control test (ACT): comparison with clinical, functional, and biological markers of asthma control. J Asthma 49:317–323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Park SY, Yoon SY, Shin B, Kwon HS, Kim TB (2015) Clinical factors affecting discrepant correlation between asthma control test score and pulmonary function. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 7(1):83–87CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Chauhan BF, Ducharme FM (2014) Addition to inhaled corticosteroids of long-acting beta2-agonists versus anti-leukotrienes for chronic asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:CD003137Google Scholar
Peng YH, Chen KF, Kao CH, Chen HJ et al (2016) Risk of migraine in patients with asthma. A nationwide cohort study. Med (Baltimore) 95(9):e2911CrossRefGoogle Scholar