China’s drought disaster risk management: Perspective of severe droughts in 2009–2010

  • Tao Ye
  • Peijun Shi
  • Jing’ai Wang
  • Lianyou Liu
  • Yida Fan
  • Junfeng Hu
Open Access
Article

Abstract

China has been frequently and heavily affected by drought disasters. During 2009–2010, three large-scale severe droughts struck China, caused considerable social, economic, and ecological losses. These droughts showed significant regional differences. This study employs a two-stage transition framework comprising “entry” and “exit” transitions to discuss disaster risk management of drought in China, by taking the three droughts as comparative case studies. Chinese society’s response in the exit transition is examined and the underlying factors that enable the entry trigger are diagnosed. The policy responses that lead to the exit transition from these drought disasters were appropriate, but there is substantial room for improvement in management strategy regarding both entry and exit transitions. This article suggests that government policies should emphasize entry-prevention measures that reduce adverse impacts early in a drought episode rather than focus solely on improving performance in achieving a rapid exit transition from drought.

Keywords

China disaster entry transition disaster exit transition drought disasters 

References

  1. Area with Efficient Irrigation Facility in First-Level Water Resources Divisions and Provinces (2008). 2009. China Flood and Drought Management 2009(S1): 201–202 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  2. Azariadis, C., and J. Stachurski. 2005. Poverty Traps. In Handbook of Economic Growth, edited by P. Aghion and S. N. Durlauf. Elsevier.Google Scholar
  3. China Daily. 2010a. Sugar Shares Sweeten on Drought. 24 March 2010. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2010-03/24/content_9633753.htm.
  4. —. 2010b. Drought Leaves Millions in Short of Food. 22 May 2010. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-05/22/content_9880812.htm.
  5. China Irrigation and Drainage Develop Center and Center for Rural Drinking Water Safety, Ministry of Water Resources. 2009. China Water-Efficient Irrigation Development Report 2008. http://www.jsgg.com.cn/Files/PictureDocument/20091201151820288254242791.doc (in Chinese).
  6. China National Climate Center. 2009a. China Drought & Flood Climate Bulletin 227 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  7. —. 2009b. China Drought & Flood Climate Bulletin 242 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  8. —. 2009–2010. National Drought Monitor. http://cmdp.ncc.cma.gov.cn/influ/dust.php (in Chinese).
  9. —. 2010. China Drought & Flood Climate Bulletin 250 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  10. Costanza, R., R. d’Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R. V. O’Neill, J. Paruelo, R. G. Raskin, P. Sutton, and M. van den Belt. 1997. The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital. Nature 387: 253–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. CPG-PRC (The Central People’s Government of the People’s Repulic of China). 2006. State Emergency Response Scheme for Flood Control and Drought Relief. http://www.gov.cn/yjgl/2006-01/11/content_155475.htm (in Chinese).
  12. —. 2009. Drought Resistant Regulations of the People’s Republic of China. http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2009-03/06/content_1252625.htm (in Chinese).
  13. —. 2011. Emergency Action Manual for Natural Disaster Relief of the MCA. http://www.mca.gov.cn/article/zwgk/fvfg/jzjj/201111/20111100191129.shtml (in Chinese).
  14. Cruz, R. V., H. Harasawa, M. Lal, S. Wu, Y. Anokhin, B. Punsalmaa, Y. Honda, M. Jafari, C. Li, and N. Huu Ninh. 2007. Asia. In Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by O. F. Canziani, M. L. Parry, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, 469–506. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Cummins, J. D., C. Lewis, and R. D. Phillips. 1995. Pricing Excess-of-Loss Reinsurance Contracts against Catastrophic Loss. Center for Research on Risk and Insurance, Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. http://fic.wharton.upenn.edu/fic/papers/98/9809.pdf.
  16. EP-NDRCC (Expert Panel of National Disaster Reduction Committee of China). 2009a. Assessment and Response Proposal for North China Severe Drought and Its Impact. February 2009. Internal Report (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  17. —. 2009b. Northern China Drought Disaster Survey Report. September 2009. Internal Report (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  18. —. 2010. Yunnan Drought Disaster Survey Report. March 2010. Internal report (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  19. Helbing, D., and C. Kuhnert. 2003. Assessing Interaction Networks with Applications to Catastrophe Dynamics and Disaster Management. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications 328(3): 584–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ibarra, H., and J. Skees. 2007. Innovation in Risk Transfer for Natural Hazards Impacting Agriculture. Environmental Hazards 7(1): 62–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. IHDP-IRG (Integrated Risk Governance Project, International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change). 2009. Integrated Risk Governance Project: Science Plan. http://www.irg-project.org/index.php?id=docu.
  22. Jia, H. C., J. Wang, Y. Yue, H. Zhou, R. Li, T. Gao, and Y. Bai. 2009. Construction and Application of Index System of Winter Wheat Drought Risk Assessment—A Preliminary Cognition Based on Fieldwork of Spring Drought in North China in 2009. Journal of Catastrophology No. 4: 20–25 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  23. Kasperson, R. E., and J. X. Kasperson. 1996. The Social Amplification and Attenuation of Risk. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 545(1): 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kasperson, R. E., O. Renn, P. Slovic, H. S. Brown, J. Emel, R. Goble, J. X. Kasperson, and S. Ratick. 1988. The Social Amplifications of Risk. A Conceptual Framework. Risk Analysis 8(2): 177–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu, Y. J., Y. Z. Yang, and Z. M. Feng. 2007. The Change of the Main Regions for China’s Food Grain Production and Its Implications. Resources Science 29(2): 8–14 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  26. Lofstedt, R., and O. Renn. 1997. The Brent Spar Controversy: An Example of Risk Communication Gone Wrong. Risk Analysis 17(2): 131–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lu, W. C., and Y. Mei. 2007. Empirical Studies on the Variation and Contributing Factors of Regional Grain Production Structure in China—Based on Spatial Econometrics Models. China Agricultural University Journal of Social Sciences Edition 24(3): 140–152 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  28. Ministry of Environment Protection. 2008. Outline of National Ecotone Protection Planning. http://www.zhb.gov.cn/gkml/hbb/bwj/200910/W020081009352582312090.pdf (in Chinese).
  29. NBSC (National Bureau of Statistics of China). 2009a. China Statistical Yearbook 2009. Beijing: China Statistics Press.Google Scholar
  30. —. 2009b. National Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin of the People’s Republic of China. http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2010-02/25/content_13047677.htm.
  31. —. 2010a. Bulletin on the Grain Yield of Year 2010. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjdt/zygg/gjtjjgg/t20101203_402687721.htm.
  32. —. 2010b. China Statistical Yearbook 2010. Beijing: China Statistics Press.Google Scholar
  33. NDRC-MCA (Naitonal Disaster Reduction Center, Ministry of Civil Affairs). 2009a. Nationwide Disaster Monthly. China Disaster Reduction No. 4: 61–63 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  34. —. 2009b. Nationwide Disaster Monthly. China Disaster Reduction No. 11: 58–62 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  35. —. 2010. Nationwide Disaster Monthly. China Disaster Reduction No. 6: 64 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  36. Niu, S. P. 2009. Despite Drought “Emergency”, China Wheat Crop OK. Reuters. 8 February 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSSP427363.
  37. Pidgeon, N., R. E. Kasperson, and P. Slovic, eds. 2003. The Social Amplification of Risk. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. SFDH (State Flood Control and Drought Relief Headquarters). 2009. Northern China Experiencing Severe Drought, SFDH Announces A Grade III Drought Emergency. http://fxkh.mwr.gov.cn/ztbd_1/2009khzt/201107/t20110721_301647.html (in Chinese).
  39. —. 2010. Drought in Southwest China Continues, 20.88 Million People Thus Lack of Drinking Water. http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2010-04/08/content_1576597.htm (in Chinese).
  40. Shen, C., W. C. Wang, Z. Hao, and W. Gong. 2007. Exceptional Drought Events over Eastern China during the Last Five Centuries. Climatic Change 85(3–4): 453–471 (in Chinese).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shi, J., Z. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. H. Fei, Y. Li, F. Zhang, J. S. Chen, and Y. Qian. 2011. Assessment of Deep Groundwater Over-Exploitation in the North China Plain. Geoscience Frontiers 2(4): 593–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shi, P. J. 1996. Theory and Practice of Disaster Study. Journal of Natural Disasters 5(4): 6–17 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  43. —, ed. 2003. Atlas of Natural Disaster System of China. Beijing: Science Press.Google Scholar
  44. Shi, P. J., and Y. H. Liu. 2009. Chinese Paradigm for Integrated Large Scale Disaster Risk Governance. Journal of US-China Public Administration 6(6): 18–28 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  45. Shi, P. J., L.Y. Liu, J. A. Wang, W. Xu, W. H. Fang, and M. Wang. 2009. Experiences and Lessons of Large-Scale Disaster Governance in China—Perspective to the Response of Wenchuan Earthquake Disaster, 12 May 2008. Paper presented at the IHDP 2009 Open Meeting. 26–30 April 2009, Bonn, Germany.Google Scholar
  46. Shi, P. J., J. B. Shuai, W. F. Chen, and L. L. Lu. 2010. Study on Large-Scale Disaster Risk Assessment and Risk Transfer Models. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science 1(2): 1–8.Google Scholar
  47. Shi, Y., and J. H. Hu. 2009. State Reserve Intervenes into the Market and Stabilizes Wheat Price. First Finance Daily, 3 February 2009, A16 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  48. Song, L. C., Z. Y. Deng, and A. X. Dong. 2003. Drought. Beijing: China Meteorological Press (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  49. Song, Y., E. Simelton, D. Chen, and W. Dong. 2005. Influence of Climate Change on Winter Wheat Growth in North China during 1950–2000. ACTA Meteorologica Sinica 19(4): 501–510.Google Scholar
  50. Tao, F., M. Yokozawa, Y. Xu, Y. Hayashi, and Z. Zhang. 2006. Climate Changes and Trends in Phenology and Yields of Field Crops in China 1981–2000. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 138(1–4): 82–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Temple, R. 2002. The Modern World: A Joint Creation of China and the West. In Proceedings of the International Conference on the Review and Forecast of Chinese Science and Technology, 111–119. Beijing: Science Press.Google Scholar
  52. Tian, W. M., and G. H. Wan. 2000. Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants in China’s Grain Production. Journal of Productivity Analysis 13(2): 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tong, J. 2009. Guoyuan Agriculture Insurance Compensate for the Drought Disaster and over 500,000 Peasants Gained Benefits. China Insurance News. 6 August 2009, 001 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  54. Uchida, E., J. Xu, and S. Rozelle. 2003. “Grain for Green” in China: Cost-Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Conservation Set-Aside Program. Paper prepared for presentation at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Montreal, Canada, 27–30 July 2003.Google Scholar
  55. United Nations. 2007. Developing Index-Based Insurance for Agriculture in Developing Countries. Sustainable Development Innovation Briefs No. 2: 1–8.Google Scholar
  56. Wakeman, F. E. Jr. 1985. The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth Century China, Vol. 1. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  57. Wang, J. A., and W. Zuo. 2009. Geographic Atlas of China. Beijing: SinoMaps Press.Google Scholar
  58. Wang, M., P. J. Shi, T. Ye, M. Liu, and M. Q. Zhou. 2011. Agriculture Insurance in China: History, Experience, and Lessons Learned. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science 2(2): 10–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Watts, J. 2010. China Sends Emergency Food to Drought-Stricken Provinces. The Guardian. 25 March 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/mar/25/china-drought-emergency-food.
  60. Wisner, B. 2004. At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability, and Disasters. London, New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Wu, Y. C., and H. Gao. 2009. The Relief Records of Severe Drought Disasters since the Founding of P. R. China. China Flood and Drought Management 19 (A01): 39–65 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  62. Xinhua News Agency. 2009. Review: Drought Impact Alleviated, Good Harvest of Autumn Crops Expected Nationwide. http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2009-08/31/content_1405640.htm (in Chinese).
  63. Yang, H., and X. B. Li. 2000. Cultivated Land and Food Supply in China. Land Use Policy 17(2): 73–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zhai, P., A. Sun, F. Ren, X. Liu, B. Gao, and Q. Zhang. 1999. Changes of Climate Extremes in China. Climatic Change 42(1): 203–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhou, M. Q. 2010. Research on Demand and Willingness to Pay of Policy-Oriented Rice and Cotton Insurance in Hunan Province. Master’s thesis of Beijing Normal University (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  66. Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange. 2009. ZCE Monthly Report No. 12: 4. December 2009 (in Chinese).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2012

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tao Ye
    • 1
  • Peijun Shi
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jing’ai Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Lianyou Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yida Fan
    • 3
    • 5
  • Junfeng Hu
    • 5
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource EcologyBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Ministry of Civil Affairs and Ministry of EducationBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Environmental Change and Natural Disasters, Ministry of Education of ChinaBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.School of GeographyBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  5. 5.National Disaster Reduction CenterMinistry of Civil AffairsBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations