Adaptive governance and managing resilience to natural hazards

  • Riyanti DjalanteEmail author
  • Cameron Holley
  • Frank Thomalla
Open Access


The increasing frequency, intensity, and severity of natural hazards is one of the most pressing global environmental change problems. From the local to the global level, governments and civil society need to increase resilience to these hazards. Despite what is now a very sizeable literature on designing governance systems to produce resilience, a substantial gap in the natural hazards scholarship remains because most studies have lacked grounding in comparable theories on governing for resilience. This article contributes to interdisciplinary research on the conceptual understanding of the interlinkages of adaptive governance (AG), resilience, and disaster risk reduction (DRR). Through better understanding of diversity of terminology, terms, and characteristics, we take a step forward towards mutual learning and intellectual experimentation between the three concepts. Our review shows that there are four characteristics of AG that are important to help increase resilience to natural hazards. These are polycentric and multilayered institutions, participation and collaboration, self-organization and networks, and learning and innovation. The article examines the development, tradeoffs, and benefits that arise from the implementation of the AG characteristics, and reviews their influence on resilience. Hazard and disaster case studies are then examined to see how each AG characteristic is viewed and implemented in disaster contexts. Based on this analysis, the contributions of AG to the DRR literature are identified, before outlining the implications for theory and further research.


adaptive governance disaster resilience disaster risk reduction natural hazards 


  1. Adger, N., T. Hughes, C. Folke, S. Carpenter, and J. Rockstrom. 2005. Social-Ecological Resilience to Coastal Disasters. Science (309): 1036–1042.Google Scholar
  2. Aldrich, D. 2011. The Power of People: Social Capital’s Role in Recovery from the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. Natural Hazards 56(3): 595–611.Google Scholar
  3. Amarasiri de Silva, M. W. 2009. Ethnicity, Politics and Inequality: Post-Tsunami Humanitarian Aid Delivery in Ampara District, Sri Lanka. Disasters 33(2): 253–273.Google Scholar
  4. Arnstein, S. R. 1969. A Ladder of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners 35(4): 216–224.Google Scholar
  5. Bajek, R., Y. Matsuda, and N. Okada. 2008. Japan’s Jishu-Bosai-Soshiki Community Activities: Analysis of Its Role in Participatory Community Disaster Risk Management. Natural Hazards 44(2): 281–292.Google Scholar
  6. Benson, M., and A. Garmestani. 2011. Can We Manage for Resilience? The Integration of Resilience Thinking into Natural Resource Management in the United States. Environmental Management 48(3): 392–399.Google Scholar
  7. Berke, P. R., J. Kartez, and D. Wenger. 1993. Recovery after Disaster: Achieving Sustainable Development, Mitigation and Equity. Disasters 17(2): 93–109.Google Scholar
  8. Berkes, F. 2009. Evolution of Co-Management: Role of Knowledge Generation, Bridging Organizations and Social Learning. Journal of Environmental Management 90(5): 1692–1702.Google Scholar
  9. Berkes, F., and C. Folke. 2002. Back to the Future: Ecosystem Dynamics and Local Knowledge. Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  10. Brody, S., J. Kang, and S. Bernhardt. 2010. Identifying Factors Influencing Flood Mitigation at the Local Level in Texas and Florida: The Role of Organizational Capacity. Natural Hazards 52(1): 167–184.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, L. D. 1991. Bridging Organizations and Sustainable Development. Human Relations 44(8): 807–831.Google Scholar
  12. Brundtland, G. H., ed. 1987. Our Common Future: The World Commission on Environment and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Brunner, R., T. Steelman, L. Coe-Juell, C. Cromley, C. Edwards, and D. Tucker. 2005. Adaptive Governance: Integrating Science, Policy and Decision Making. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bulkeley, H., and M. Betsill. 2005. Rethinking Sustainable Cities: Multilevel Governance and the “Urban” Politics of Climate Change. Environmental Politics 14(1): 42–63.Google Scholar
  15. Bulkeley, H., and K. Kern. 2006. Local Government and the Governing of Climate Change in Germany and the UK. Urban Studies 43(12): 2237–2259.Google Scholar
  16. Bull-Kamanga, L., K. Diagne, A. Lavell, E. Leon, F. Lerise, H. MacGregor, A. Maskrey, M. Meshack, M. Pelling, H. Reid, D. Satterthwaite, J. Songsore, K. Westgate, and A. Yitambe. 2003. From Everyday Hazards to Disasters: The Accumulation of Risk in Urban Areas. Environment and Urbanization 15(1): 193–203.Google Scholar
  17. Camacho, A. E. 2007. Can Regulation Evolve? Lessons from a Study in Maladaptive Management. UCLA Law Review 55(2): 293–358.Google Scholar
  18. Carlsson, L., and F. Berkes. 2005. Co-Management: Concepts and Methodological Implications. Journal of Environmental Management 75(1): 65–76.Google Scholar
  19. Carpenter, S., B. Walker, J. M. Anderies, and N. Abel. 2001. From Metaphor to Measurement: Resilience of What to What? Ecosystems 4(8): 765–781.Google Scholar
  20. Carpenter, S. R., and L. H. Gunderson. 2001. Coping with Collapse: Ecological and Social Dynamics in Ecosystem Management. BioScience 51(6): 451–457.Google Scholar
  21. Chang, C.-Y., and Y.-H. Chang. 2010. Enhancing the Capacities of Natural Hazard Mitigation: A Study on a Typhoon Curriculum Module in High School Earth Science. Natural Hazards 55(2): 423–440.Google Scholar
  22. Colten, C., and A. Sumpter. 2009. Social Memory and Resilience in New Orleans. Natural Hazards 48(3): 355–364.Google Scholar
  23. Corfee-Morlot, J., I. Cochran, S. Hallegatte, and P.-J. Teasdale. 2011. Multilevel Risk Governance and Urban Adaptation Policy. Climatic Change 104(1): 169–197.Google Scholar
  24. Crittenden, P. M. 1985. Maltreated Infants: Vulnerability and Resilience. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 26(1): 85–96.Google Scholar
  25. Dart, J., and R. Davies. 2003. A Dialogical, Story-Based Evaluation Tool: The Most Significant Change Technique. American Journal of Evaluation 24(2): 137–155.Google Scholar
  26. Dewey, J. 1948 [1920]. Reconstruction in Philosophy. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  27. Dietz, T., E. Ostrom, and P. C. Stern. 2003. The Struggle to Govern the Commons. Science 302(5652): 1907–1912.Google Scholar
  28. Djalante, R., and F. Thomalla. 2011. Community Resilience to Natural Hazards and Climate Change Impacts: A Review of Definitions and Operational Frameworks. Asian Journal of Environment and Disaster Management 3(3): 339–355.Google Scholar
  29. Djalante, R., F. Thomalla, M. Sinapoy, and M. Carnegie. In Press. Building Resilience to Natural Hazards in Indonesia: Progress and Challenges in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action. Natural Hazards 2012. doi:10.1007/s11069-012-0106-8.Google Scholar
  30. Doremus, H. Forthcoming. Adaptive Management as an Information Problem. North Carolina Law Review.Google Scholar
  31. Doremus, H., W. L. Andreen, A. E. Camacho, D. A. Farber, R. L. Glicksman, D. D. Goble, B. C. Karkkainen, D. Rohlf, A. D. Tarlock, S. B. Zellmer, S. C. Jones, and Y. Huang. 2011. Making Good Use of Adaptive Management. Center for Progressive Reform White Paper No. 1104, UC Irvine School of Law Research Paper (24).Google Scholar
  32. Dorf, M. C., and C. F. Sabel. 1998. A Constitution of Democratic Experimentalism. Columbia Law Review 98(2): 267–473.Google Scholar
  33. Dovers, S. 2003a. Processes and Institutions for Resource and Environmental Management: Why and How to Analyse? In Managing Australia’s Environment, edited by S. Dovers and S. W. River. Leichhardt, NSW: The Federation Press.Google Scholar
  34. —. 2003b. Reflecting on Three Decades: A Synthesis. In Managing Australia’s Environment, edited by S. Dovers and S. W. River. Leichhardt, NSW: The Federation Press.Google Scholar
  35. Drejza, S., P. Bernatchez, and C. Dugas. 2011. Effectiveness of Land Management Measures to Reduce Coastal Georisks, Eastern Québec, Canada. Ocean & Coastal Management 54(4): 290–301.Google Scholar
  36. Dryzek, J. S. 1999. Transnational Democracy. Journal of Political Philosophy 7(1): 30–51.Google Scholar
  37. —. 2000. Deliberative Democracy and Beyond: Liberals, Critics and Contestations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Duit, A., V. Galaz, K. Eckerberg, and J. Ebbesson. 2010. Governance, Complexity, and Resilience Introduction. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 20(3): 363–368.Google Scholar
  39. Englehardt, C. S., and P. Simmons. 2002. Organisational Flexibility for a Changing World. Leadership and Organization Development Journal 23(3): 113–121.Google Scholar
  40. Folke, C. 2006. Resilience: The Emergence of a Perspective for Social-Ecological Systems Analyses. Global Environmental Change 16(3): 253–267.Google Scholar
  41. Folke, C., T. Hahn, P. Olsson, and J. Norberg. 2005. Adaptive Governance of Social-Ecological Systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30(1): 441–473.Google Scholar
  42. Freeman, J. 1997–1998. Collaborative Governance in the Administrative State. UCLA Law Review 45(1): 1–98.Google Scholar
  43. Freeman, J., and D. A. Farber. 2005. Modular Environmental Regulation. Duke Law Journal 54(4): 795–912.Google Scholar
  44. Fung, A. 2006. Varieties of Participation in Complex Governance. Public Administration Review 66(S1): 66–75.Google Scholar
  45. Fung, A., and E. O. Wright. 2003. Thinking about Empowered Participatory Governance. In Deepening Democracy: Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance, edited by A. Fung and E. O. Wright. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  46. Gaillard, J. C. 2010. Vulnerability, Capacity and Resilience: Perspectives for Climate and Development Policy. Journal of International Development 22(2): 218–232.Google Scholar
  47. Gallopín, G. C. 2006. Linkages between Vulnerability, Resilience, and Adaptive Capacity. Global Environmental Change 16(3): 293–303.Google Scholar
  48. Gardner, J., and J. Dekens. 2007. Mountain Hazards and the Resilience of Social-Ecological Systems: Lessons Learned in India and Canada. Natural Hazards 41(2): 317–336.Google Scholar
  49. Garmestani, A. S., R. A. Craig, and H. Cabezas. 2008. Panarchy, Adaptive Management and Governance: Policy Options for Building Resilience. Nebraska Law Review 87(4): 1036–1054.Google Scholar
  50. Goldstein, B. E., and W. H. Butler. 2009. The Network Imaginary: Coherence and Creativity within a Multiscalar Collaborative Effort to Reform US Fire Management. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 52(8): 1013–1033.Google Scholar
  51. Gunderson, L. 1999. Resilience, Flexibility and Adaptive Management—Antidoes for Spurious Certitude? Ecology and Society 3(1): Article No. 7.Google Scholar
  52. Gunderson, L., and C. S. Holling. 2002. Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  53. Gunderson, L., and S. S. Light. 2006. Adaptive Management and Adaptive Governance in the Everglades Ecosystem. Policy Sciences 39: 323–334.Google Scholar
  54. Guston, D. H. 2001. Boundary Organizations in Environmental Policy and Science: An Introduction. Science Technology & Human Values 26(4): 399–408.Google Scholar
  55. Head, B. 2009. From Government to Governance: Explaining and Assessing New Approaches to Natural Resource Management. In Contested Country: Local and Regional Natural Resource Management in Australia, edited by M. B. Lane, C. Robinson, and B. Taylor. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.Google Scholar
  56. Heikkila, T., and A. K. Gerlak. 2005. The Formation of Large-Scale Collaborative Resource Management Institutions: Clarifying the Roles of Stakeholders, Science, and Institutions. Policy Studies Journal 33(4): 583–612.Google Scholar
  57. Holley, C. 2009. Aging Gracefully? Examining the Conditions for Sustaining Successful Collaboration in Environmental Law and Governance. Environmental and Planning Law Journal 26: 457–485.Google Scholar
  58. —. 2010a. Facilitating Monitoring, Subverting Self-Interest and Limiting Discretion: Learning from “New” Forms of Accountability in Practice. Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 36(2): 127–211.Google Scholar
  59. —. 2010b. Removing the Thorn from New Governance’s Side: Examining the Emergence of Collaboration in Practice and the Roles for Law, Nested Institutions and Trusts. Environmental Law Reporter 40(7): 10656–10686.Google Scholar
  60. Holley, C., N. Gunningham, and C. Shearing. 2011. The New Environmental Governance. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Holley, C., and D. Sinclair. 2011. Collaborative Governance and Adaptive Management: (Mis)Applications to Groundwater Salinity and Run-Off. The Australasian Journal of Natural Resources Law and Policy 14(1): 37–69.Google Scholar
  62. Holling, C. S. 1973. Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4(1): 1–23.Google Scholar
  63. —. 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. Chichester: Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
  64. Hooghe, L., and G. Marks. 2003. Unraveling the Central State, but How? Types of Multi-Level Governance. Vienna: Institute for Advanced Studies (IHS), Political Science Series.Google Scholar
  65. Hunt, A., and P. Watkiss. 2011. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Cities: A Review of the Literature. Climatic Change 104(1): 13–49.Google Scholar
  66. IFRC, RC/RC (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies) Climate Centre, P. Consortium, and K. Westgate. 2009. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Local Impacts: Key Messages for UNFCCC Negotiators. Technical Paper for the IASC Task Force on Climate Change.
  67. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Fourth Assessment Report. In Climate Change 2007: Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson. Cambridge, UK and New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Ireland, P. 2010. Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: Contested Spaces and Emerging Opportunities in Development Theory and Practice. Climate and Development 2(4): 332–345.Google Scholar
  69. Jabeen, H., C. Johnson, and A. Allen. 2010. Built-in Resilience: Learning from Grassroots Coping Strategies for Climate Variability. Environment and Urbanization 22(2): 415–431.Google Scholar
  70. Jasanoff, S., and B. Wynne. 1998. Science and Decision Making. Human Choice and Climate Change. Columbus, OH: Batelle Institute.Google Scholar
  71. John, D. 1994. Civic Environmentalism: Alternatives to Regulation in States and Communities. CQ Press.Google Scholar
  72. Karkkainen, B. C. 2001. Collaborative Ecosystem Governance: Scale, Complexity, and Dynamism. Virginia Environmental Law Journal 21(189): 189–243.Google Scholar
  73. —. 2003. Adaptive Ecosystem Management and Regulatory Penalty Defaults: Toward a Bounded Pragmatism. Minnesota Law Review 87(4): 943–998.Google Scholar
  74. —. 2006. Managing Transboundary Aquatic Ecosystems: Lessons from the Great Lakes. Pacific McGeorge Global Business and Development Law Journal 19(1): 209–240.Google Scholar
  75. King, D. 2007. Organisations in Disaster. Natural Hazards 40(3): 657–665.Google Scholar
  76. —. 2008. Reducing Hazard Vulnerability through Local Government Engagement and Action. Natural Hazards 47(3): 497–508.Google Scholar
  77. Klein, R. J. T., R. J. Nicholls, and F. Thomalla. 2003. Resilience to Natural Hazards: How Useful Is This Concept? Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 5(1–2): 35–45.Google Scholar
  78. Koria, M. 2009. Managing for Innovation in Large and Complex Recovery Programmes: Tsunami Lessons from Sri Lanka. International Journal of Project Management 27(2): 123–130.Google Scholar
  79. Lane, M. B., and T. Corbett. 2005. The Tyranny of Localism: Indigenous Participation in Community-Based Environmental Management. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 7(2): 141–159.Google Scholar
  80. Lave, J., and E. Wenger. 1991. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Lebel, L., J. M. Anderies, B. Campbell, C. Folke, S. Hatfield-Dodds, T. P. Hughes, and J. Wilson. 2006. Governance and the Capacity to Manage Resilience in Regional Social-Ecological Systems. Ecology and Society 11(1): Article No. 19.Google Scholar
  82. Lee, K. N. 1993. Compass and Gyroscope: Integrating Science and Politics for the Environment. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  83. —. 1999. Appraising Adaptive Management. Ecology and Society 3(2): Article No. 3.Google Scholar
  84. López-Marrero, T., and P. Tschakert. 2011. From Theory to Practice: Building More Resilient Communities in Flood-Prone Areas. Environment and Urbanization 23(1): 229–249.Google Scholar
  85. MacRae, G., and D. Hodgkin. 2011. Half Full or Half Empty? Shelter after the Jogjakarta Earthquake. Disasters 35(1): 243–267.Google Scholar
  86. Margerum, R. 2008. A Typology of Collaboration Efforts in Environmental Management. Environmental Management 41(4): 487–500.Google Scholar
  87. McGinnis, M. D., ed. 1999. Polycentric Governance and Development: Readings from the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis. Michigan University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Menoni, S. 2001. Chains of Damages and Failures in a Metropolitan Environment: Some Observations on the Kobe Earthquake in 1995. Journal of Hazardous Materials 86(1–3): 101–119.Google Scholar
  89. Mercer, J., I. Kelman, L. Taranis, and S. Suchet-Pearson. 2009. Framework for Integrating Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge for Disaster Risk Reduction. Disasters 30(1): 39–48.Google Scholar
  90. Miller, F., H. Osbahr, E. Boyd, F. Thomalla, S. Bharwani, G. Ziervogel, B. Walker, J. Birkmann, S. van der Leeuw, J. Rockstrom, J. Hinkel, T. Downing, C. Folke, and D. Nelson. 2010. Resilience and Vulnerability: Complementary or Conflicting Concepts? Ecology and Society 15(3): Article No. 11.Google Scholar
  91. Murphy, B. 2007. Locating Social Capital in Resilient Community-Level Emergency Management. Natural Hazards 41(2): 297–315.Google Scholar
  92. Nakagawa, Y., and R. Shaw. 2004. Social Capital and Disaster Recovery: A Comparative Case Study of Kobe and Gujarat Earthquake. Paper presented at the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, August 1–6, 2004.Google Scholar
  93. Norris, F., S. Stevens, B. Pfefferbaum, K. Wyche, and R. Pfefferbaum. 2008. Community Resilience as a Metaphor, Theory, Set of Capacities, and Strategy for Disaster Readiness. American Journal of Community Psychology 41(1): 127–150.Google Scholar
  94. Odum, E. P. 1953. Fundamentals of Psychology. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  95. Olsson, P., C. Folke, and F. Berkes. 2004. Adaptive Comanagement for Building Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems. Environmental Management 34(1): 75–90.Google Scholar
  96. Omidvar, B., H. Zafari, and M. Khakpour. 2011. Evaluation of Public Participation in Reconstruction of Bam, Iran, after the 2003 Earthquake. Natural Hazards 59(3): 1397–1412.Google Scholar
  97. Orts, E. W., and C. Coglianese. 2007. Debate: Collaborative Environmental Law: Pro and Con. University of Pennsylvania Law Review PENNumbra 156: 289–311.Google Scholar
  98. Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  99. —. 2000. The Danger of Self-Evident Truths. PS: Political Science and Politics 33(1): 33–44.Google Scholar
  100. —. 2010. Beyond Markets and States: Polycentric Governance of Complex Economic Systems. American Economic Review 100(3): 641–672.Google Scholar
  101. Ostrom, V., C. M. Tiebout, and R. Warren. 1961. The Organization of Government in Metropolitan Areas: A Theoretical Inquiry. The American Political Science Review 53(5): 831–842.Google Scholar
  102. Pahl-Wostl, C. 2009. A Conceptual Framework for Analysing Adaptive Capacity and Multi-Level Learning Processes in Resource Governance Regimes. Global Environmental Change 19(3): 354–365.Google Scholar
  103. Parker, C., and J. Braithwaite. 2003. Regulation. In The Oxford Handbook of Legal Studies, edited by P. Cane and M. Tushnet, 119–145. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Paton, D., R. Bajek, N. Okada, and D. McIvor. 2010. Predicting Community Earthquake Preparedness: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Japan and New Zealand. Natural Hazards 54(3): 765–781.Google Scholar
  105. Paton, D., and D. Johnston. 2001. Disasters and Communities: Vulnerability, Resilience and Preparedness. Disaster Prevention & Management 10(4): 270–277.Google Scholar
  106. Paton, D., and D. Johnston, eds. 2006. Disaster Resilience: An Integrated Approach. Charles C. Thomas Publisher.Google Scholar
  107. Pearce, L. 2003. Disaster Management and Community Planning, and Public Participation: How to Achieve Sustainable Hazard Mitigation. Natural Hazards 28(2): 211–228.Google Scholar
  108. Pelling, M. 2007. Learning from Others: The Scope and Challenges for Participatory Disaster Risk Assessment. Disasters 31(4): 373–385.Google Scholar
  109. Plummer, R. 2009. The Adaptive Co-Management Process: An Initial Synthesis of Representative Models and Influential Variables. Ecology and Society 14(2): Article No. 24.Google Scholar
  110. Plummer, R., and D. A. Fennell. 2009. Managing Protected Areas for Sustainable Tourism: Prospects for Adaptive Co-Management. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 17(2): 149–168.Google Scholar
  111. Putnam, R. D. 1993. The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life. The American Prospect 13(4): 35–42.Google Scholar
  112. Raymond, L. 2006. Cooperation without Trust: Overcoming Collective Action Barriers to Endangered Species Protection. Policy Studies Journal 34(1): 37–57.Google Scholar
  113. Rotmans, J., and D. Loorbach. 2009. Complexity and Transition Management. Journal of Industrial Ecology 13(2): 184–196.Google Scholar
  114. Roux, D. J., K. Murray, and E. van Wyk. 2007. Principles Enabling Learning Environments for Good Ecosystem Governance. In Governance as a Trialogue: Government-Society-Science in Transition, edited by A. Turton, H. J. Hattingh, and D. J. Roux, 254–277. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  115. Ruhl, J. B. 2011. General Design Principles for Resilience and Adaptive Capacity in Legal Systems: Applications to Climate Change Adaptation Law. North Carolina Law Review 89(5): 1374–1401.Google Scholar
  116. Sabatier, P. A., W. Focht, M. Lubell, Z. Trachtenberg, A. Vedlitz, and M. Matlock, eds. 2005. Swimming Upstream: Collaborative Approaches to Watershed Management. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  117. Scholz, J. T., and B. Stiftel, eds. 2005. Adaptive Governance and Water Conflict: New Institutions for Collaborative Planning. Washington, DC: RFF Press.Google Scholar
  118. Sharma, U., and A. Patt. 2012. Disaster Warning Response: The Effects of Different Types of Personal Experience. Natural Hazards 60(2): 409–423.Google Scholar
  119. Sharp, B. 2007. Food Aid and Development in Southern Sudan: Implications of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement for Response Planning. Disasters 31(S1): 104–123.Google Scholar
  120. Slavíková, L., T. Kluvánková-Oravská, and J. Jílková. 2010. Bridging Theories on Environmental Governance: Insights from Free-Market Approaches and Institutional Ecological Economics Perspectives. Ecological Economics 69(7): 1368–1372.Google Scholar
  121. Srinivas, H., and Y. Nakagawa. 2008. Environmental Implications for Disaster Preparedness: Lessons Learnt from the Indian Ocean Tsunami. Journal of Environmental Management 89(1): 4–13.Google Scholar
  122. Steinzor, R. I. 2000. The Corruption of Civic Environmentalism. The University of Maryland Environmental Law Reporter 30: 10909–10929.Google Scholar
  123. Surjan, A., and R. Shaw. 2009. Enhancing Disaster Resilience through Local Environment Management: Case of Mumbai, India. Disaster Prevention and Management 18(4): 418–433.Google Scholar
  124. Telford, J., and J. Cosgrave. 2007. The International Humanitarian System and the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunamis. Disasters 31(1): 1–28.Google Scholar
  125. Thomalla, F., and R. K. Larsen. 2010. Resilience in the Context of Tsunami Early Warning Systems and Community Disaster Preparedness in the Indian Ocean Region. Environmental Hazards 9(4): 249–265.Google Scholar
  126. Tierney, K., and M. Bruneau. 2007. Conceptualizing and Measuring Resilience: A Key to Disaster Loss Reduction. TR News 250: 14–17.Google Scholar
  127. Tompkins, E. L. 2005. Planning for Climate Change in Small Islands: Insights from National Hurricane Preparedness in the Cayman Islands. Global Environmental Change Part A 15(2): 139–149.Google Scholar
  128. Tompkins, E. L., R. Few, and K. Brown. 2008. Scenario-Based Stakeholder Engagement: Incorporating Stakeholders Preferences into Coastal Planning for Climate Change. Journal of Environmental Management 88(4): 1580–1592.Google Scholar
  129. Tompkins, E. L., M. C. Lemos, and E. Boyd. 2008. A Less Disastrous Disaster: Managing Response to Climate-Driven Hazards in the Cayman Islands and Ne Brazil. Global Environmental Change 18(4): 736–745.Google Scholar
  130. Toonen, T. 2011. The (Changing) Role of National Government in Multi-Level (Water) Governance. In Introduction at UNESCO Workshop on Water and Governance. World Water Day, March 22, Delft, IHE.
  131. Tran, P., R. Shaw, G. Chantry, and J. Norton. 2009. GIS and Local Knowledge in Disaster Management: A Case Study of Flood Risk Mapping in Viet Nam. Disasters 33(1): 152–169.Google Scholar
  132. UNDP (United Nations Development Program) Indonesia. 2008. Lessons Learned: Indonesia’s Partnership for Disaster Risk Reduction, the National Platform for DRR and the University Forum. Jakarta: United Nations Development Program-Indonesia. Scholar
  133. UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). 2008. Climate Change: Impacts, Vulnerabilities and Adaptation in Developing Countries.
  134. UNISDR (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction). 2007. Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters: Extract from the Final Report of the World Conference on Disaster Reduction (a/Conf.206/6). Geneva: United Nations. Scholar
  135. —. 2009. Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction. Geneva: United Nations. Scholar
  136. —. 2011. The Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction. Geneva: UNISDR.Google Scholar
  137. Van Vliet, K. J. 2008. Shame and Resilience in Adulthood: A Grounded Theory Study. Journal of Counseling Psychology 55(2): 233–245.Google Scholar
  138. Voss, M., and K. Wagner. 2010. Learning from (Small) Disasters. Natural Hazards 55(3): 657–669.Google Scholar
  139. Walters, C. J. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  140. Walters, C., L. Gunderson, and C. S. Holling. 1992. Experimental Policies for Water Management in the Everglades. Ecological Applications 2: 189–202.Google Scholar
  141. Walters, C. J., and R. Hilborn. 1978. Ecological Optimization and Adaptive Management. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9: 157–188.Google Scholar
  142. Warner, J. 2008. Emergency River Storage in the Ooij Polder-A Bridge Too Far? Forms of Participation in Flood Preparedness Policy. International Journal of Water Resources Development 24(4): 567–582.Google Scholar
  143. Warner, J., and M. T. Oré. 2006. El Niño Platforms: Participatory Disaster Response in Peru. Disasters 30(1): 102–117.Google Scholar
  144. Warner, J., P. Waalewijn, and D. Hilhost. 2002. Public Participation in Disaster-Prone Watersheds. Time for Multi-Stakeholder Platforms? Wageningen: Disaster Studies Wageningen University. Scholar
  145. Wildavsky, A. 1991. Searching for Safety. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publisher.Google Scholar
  146. Wisner, B., P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis. 2004. At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability and Disasters (2nd Edition). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  147. Wondolleck, J. M., and S. L. Yaffee. 2000. Making Collaboration Work: Lessons from Innovation in Natural Resource Management. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  148. Young, O. R. 2002. The Institutional Dimensions of Environmental Change: Fit, Interplay, Scale. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2011

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riyanti Djalante
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cameron Holley
    • 2
  • Frank Thomalla
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environment and GeographyMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of LawUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations