An emergent framework of disaster risk governance towards innovating coping capability for reducing disaster risks in local communities
- 1.9k Downloads
An emergent framework of disaster risk governance is presented as an implementation strategy for integrated risk management that incorporates innovative local coping capabilities that reduce disaster vulnerability. This framework calls for enhancement of self-support and mutual-assistance through strengthening informal or social networking efforts in local communities, rather than depending on formal or institutional governmental-assistance. The framework is supported by a societal platform of disaster risk information, called DRIP, which the NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Japan) has developed since 2006 as a tool that promotes improved disaster risk governance. With the help of DRIP, residents, communities, and other stakeholders, linked horizontally or vertically with social networks, can (1) improve their awareness of disaster risks and management issues by sharing risk information as scientific expertise, experiential knowledge, and local/folk wisdom; (2) customize risk communication through analytic deliberation of risk information by employing risk-scenarios developed by residents themselves; (3) develop collaborative activities for informed decision-making that can fully utilize local resources to reorganize coping capability against disaster risks; and (4) disseminate the generated risk scenarios with action plans to other residents who have not participated in the risk communication process.
Keywordsdisaster coping capability risk communication risk governance risk scenario social networks
- Alexander, D. 2000. Confronting Catastrophe. Harpenden, UK: Terra Publishing.Google Scholar
- Beck, U. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Birkmann, J. 2006. Measuring Vulnerability to Promote Disaster-Resilient Societies: Conceptual Frameworks and Definitions. In Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards, edited by J. Birkmann, 9–54. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
- Defourny J., and V. Pestoff, eds. 2008. Images and Concepts of the Third Sector in Europe. WP No. 08/02. EMES European Research Network. http://www.emes.net/fileadmin/emes/PDF_files/Working_Papers/WP_08_02_TS_FINAL_WEB.pdf.
- Giddens, A. 1999. Runaway World: How Globalization is Reshaping Our Lives. London: Profile Books.Google Scholar
- Goldsmith, S., and W. D. Eggers. 2004. Governing by Network: The New Shape of the Public Sector. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute Press.Google Scholar
- Ikeda, S. 2006. An Integrated Risk Analysis Framework for Emerging Disaster Risks: Toward a Better Risk Management of Flood Disaster in Urban Communities. In A Better Integrated Management of Disaster Risks toward Resilient Society to Emerging Disaster Risks in Mega-Cities, edited by S. Ikeda, T. Fukuzono, and T. Sato, 1–22. Tokyo: TERRAPUB. http://www.terrapub.co.jp/e-library/nied/index.html.Google Scholar
- —. 2011. Is “Beyond the Scope of the Risk-Scenario” out of the Framework of “Risk Analysis”. Japanese Journal of Risk Analysis 21(1): 1–5 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- IRGC (International Risk Governance Council). 2003. White Paper on Risk Governance. http://www.irgc.org.
- Japan Meteorological Agency. 2011. Prediction of the Tokai Earthquake. http://www.jma.go.jp/en/quake_tokai/.
- Kawai, T., K. Masuda, and M. Hanashima. 2008. Significance and Problem of “E-Community Platform”: Disaster Risk Communication. Japanese Journal of Risk Analysis 17(3): 33–41 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- Lee, T., H. Tsubokawa, and T. Nagasaka. 2011. Re-Organizing of Local Disaster Prevention Capabilities through Scenario-Based Risk Communication: A Case Study of Tsukuba City in Japan. Proceedings of 3rd Global Disaster and Risk Conference, Davos.Google Scholar
- Lyall, C., and J. Tait. 2005. New Modes of Governance. Hants, UK: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
- Masuda, K., T. Nagasaka, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Usuda. 2007. Enhancement of Risk Governance by Introduction of E-Community Platform in Tsukuba City. Proceedings of SRA-Japan Annual Conference, Volume 20, Tokushima (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- McDaniels, T., and M. Small. 2004. Risk Analysis and Society: An Interdisciplinary Characterization of the Field. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Nagamatsu, S., T. Nagasaka, Y. Usuda, and S. Ikeda. 2008. Measuring Disaster Coping Capacity of Local Communities for Better Risk Governance. Proceedings of 2nd Global Disaster and Risk Conference, Davos, 25–29 August 2008.Google Scholar
- Nagasaka, T. 2006. New Mode of Risk Governance Enhanced by an E-Community Platform. In A Better Integrated Management of Disaster Risks toward Resilient Society to Emerging Disaster Risks in Mega-Cities, edited by S. Ikeda, T. Fukuzono, and T. Sato, 89–107. Tokyo: TERRAPUB. http://www.terrapub.co.jp/e-library/nied/index.html.Google Scholar
- Nagasaka, T., and S. Ikeda. 2008. Strategy and Methodology for Disaster Risk Governance. Japanese Journal of Risk Analysis 17(3): 13–23 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention). 2010. http://risk.bosai.go.jp/ (in Japanese).
- —. 2011. http://risk.bosai.go.jp/group.php?gid=1099/ (in Japanese).
- Pestoff, V. A. 1998. Beyond the Market and State-Social Enterprise & Civil Democracy in a Welfare Society. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
- Renn, O. 2008. Risk Governance: Coping with Uncertainty in a Complex World. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Schank, R. C. 1990. Tell me a Story: A New Look at Real and Artificial Memory. New York: John Brockman Associates Inc.Google Scholar
- Tsubokawa, H., T. Nagasaka, and Y. Usuda. 2008. An Experiment on Evacuation Shelter Management Using Disaster Risk Scenario. Journal of the Institute of Social Safety Science 10: 511–519 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- Tsubokawa, H., M. Tanaka, and T. Nagasaka. 2008. Study of Risk Communication using Disaster Risk Scenarios-Case Study of an Earthquake Disaster Risk Scenario Making Conducted with Participation of Fujisawa City Residents. Journal of the Institute of Social Safety Science 17(3): 43–53 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- UNISDR (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction). 2010. What is Disaster Risk Reduction?http://www.unisdr.org/who-we-are/what-is-drr/.
- Usuda, Y., T. Nagasaka, S. Okada, A. Amano, and H. Fujiwara. 2008. Disaster Risk Information Platform for Risk Governance. Proceedings of SRA-Japan Annual Conference, Volume 21, 1, Osaka (in Japanese).Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.