, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 145–152 | Cite as

Synthetic astaxanthin is significantly inferior to algal-based astaxanthin as an antioxidant and may not be suitable as a human nutraceutical supplement

  • Bob CapelliEmail author
  • Debasis Bagchi
  • Gerald R. Cysewski
Original Research


Synthetic astaxanthin (S-AX) was tested against natural astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae (N-AX) for antioxidant activity. In vitro studies conducted at Creighton University and Brunswick Laboratories showed N-AX to be over 50 times stronger than S-AX in singlet oxygen quenching and approximately 20 times stronger in free radical elimination. N-AX has been widely used over the last 15 years as a human nutraceutical supplement after extensive safety data and several health benefits were established. S-AX, which is synthesised from petrochemicals, has been used as a feed ingredient, primarily to pigment the flesh of salmonids. S-AX has never been demonstrated to be safe for use as a human nutraceutical supplement and has not been tested for health benefits in humans. Due to safety concerns with the use of synthetic forms of other carotenoids such as canthaxanthin and beta-carotene in humans, the authors recommend against the use of S-AX as a human nutraceutical supplement until extensive, long-term safety parameters have been established and human clinical trials have been conducted showing potential health benefits. Additionally, differences in various other properties between SAX and N-AX such as stereochemistry, esterification and the presence of supporting naturally occurring carotenoids in N-AX are discussed, all of which elicit further questions as to the safety and potential health benefits of S-AX. Ultimately, should S-AX prove safe for direct human consumption, dosage levels roughly 20–30 times greater than N-AX should be used as a result of the extreme difference in antioxidant activity between the two forms.


astaxanthin synthetic astaxanthin natural astaxanthin antioxidant Haematococcus 


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Copyright information

© CEC editore - Springer-Verlag Italia 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bob Capelli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Debasis Bagchi
    • 2
  • Gerald R. Cysewski
    • 1
  1. 1.Cyanotech CorporationKailua-KonaUSA
  2. 2.Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences DepartmentUniversity of Houston, College of PharmacyHoustonUSA

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