, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 111–116 | Cite as

Vitamin K: essential for healthy bones

  • Siegbert PhilippEmail author
  • Arthur C. Ouwehand


vitamin K menaquinone bone health dietary supplement functional food 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cranenburg ECM, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C (2007) Vitamin K: the coagulation vitamin that became omnipotent. Thromb Haemost 98:120–125Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Plaza SM, Lamson DW (2005) Vitamin K2 in bone metabolism and osteoporosis. Altern Med Rev 10:24–35Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Truong JT, Booth SL (2011) Emerging issues in vitamin K research. J Evidence-Based Complement Altern Med 16:73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gijsbers BL, Jie KS, Vermeer C (1996) Effect of food composition on vitamin K absorption in human volunteers. Br J Nutr 76:223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vermeer C (2012) Vitamin K: the effect on health beyond coagulation — an overview. Food Nutr Res 56:5329Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C (2000) Determination of phylloquinone and menaquinones in food: effect of food matrix on circulating vitamin K concentrations. Haemostasis 30:298–307Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shearer MJ, Newman P (2008) Metabolism and cell biology of vitamin K. Thromb Haemost 100:530–547Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shearer MJ, Fu X, Booth SL (2012) Vitamin K nutrition, metabolism, and requirements: current concepts and future research. Adv Nutr 3:182–195Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C (2002) Differential lipoprotein transport pathways of K-vitamins in healthy subjects. Biochim Biophys Acta 1570:27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schurgers LJ, Teunissen KJ, Hamulyak K et al (2007) Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7. Blood 109:3279–3283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Morgan EF, Barnes GL, Einhorn TA (2008) The bone organ system: form and function. In: Marcus R, Feldman D, Nelson DA, Rosen CJ (eds) Osteoporosis, 3rd edn. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA, pp 3–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Luukinen H, Käkönen SM, Pettersson K et al (2000) Strong prediction of fractures among older adults by the ratio of carboxylated to total serum osteocalcin. J Bone Miner Res 15:2473–2478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vermeer C, Shearer MJ, Zittermann A et al (2004). Beyond deficiency: potential benefits of increased intakes of vitamin K for bone and vascular health. Eur J Nutr 43:325–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Van Summeren MJH, Braam AJLM, Lilien MR et al (2009) The effect of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2) supplementation on osteocalcin carboxylation in healthy prepubertal children. Br J Nutr 102:1171–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tsukamoto Y, Ichise H, Kakuda H, Yamaguchi M (2000) Intake of fermented soybeans (natto) increases circulating vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) and γ-carboxylated osteocalcin concentration in normal individuals. J Bone Min Met 18:216–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Szulc P, Chapuy MC, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD (1996) Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin is a marker of the risk of hip fracture: a three year follow-up study. Bone 18:487–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    O’Connor E, Molgaard C, Michaelsen KF et al (2007) Serum percentage undercarboxylated osteocalcin, a sensitive measure of vitamin K status, and its relationship to bone health indices in Danish girls. Br J Nutr 97:661–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Van Summeren MJH, Van Coeverden SC, Schurgers LJ et al (2008). Vitamin K status is associated with childhood bone mineral content. Br J Nutr 100:852–858Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kaneki M, Hodges SJ, Hosoi T et al (2001) Japanese fermented soybean food as the major determinant of the large geographic difference in circulating levels of vitamin K2: possible implications for hip-fracture risk. Nutrition 17:315–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fujita Y, Iki M, Tamaki J et al (2011) Association between vitamin K intake from fermented soybeans, natto, and bone mineral density in elderly Japanese men: the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) study. Osteoporos Int 23:705–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kidd PM (2010) Vitamins D and K as pleiotropic nutrients: clinical importance to the skeletal and cardiovascular systems and preliminary evidence for synergy. Altern Med Rev 15:199–222Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Booth SL, Suttie JW (1998) Dietary intake and adequacy of K vitamins. J Nutr 128:785–788Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vermeer C, Theuwissen E (2011) Vitamin K, osteoporosis and degenerative diseases of ageing. Menopause Int 17:19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vermeer C, Schurgers LJ (2000) A comprehensive review of vitamin K and vitamin K antagonists. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 14:339–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McCann JC, Ames BN (2009) Vitamin K, an example of triage theory: is micronutrient inadequacy linked to diseases of aging? Am J Clin Nutr 90:889–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    European Food Safety Authority (2009) Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin K and maintenance of bone (ID 123, 127, 128, and 2879), blood coagulation (ID 124 and 126), and function of the heart and blood vessels (ID 124, 125 and 2880) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA J 7:1228Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ikeda Y, Iki M, Morita A et al (2006) Intake of fermented soybeans, natto, is associated with reduced bone loss in postmenopausal women: Japanese Population-Based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Study. J Nutr 136:1323–1328Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    National Academy of Science, Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (2001) Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp 162–196. Available online: Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    (2008) Scientific opinion of the panel on dietetic products nutrition and allergies on a request from the European Commission on the safety of “Vitamin K2”. EFSA J 822:1–32Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pucaj K, Rasmussen H, Moller M, Preston T (2011) Safety and toxicological evaluation of a synthetic vitamin K2, menaquinone-7. Toxicol Mech Meth 21:520–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© CEC editore - Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DuPont Nutrition & HealthDanisco Deutschland GmbHNiebullGermany

Personalised recommendations