Influence of Temperature and Precipitation Anomaly on the Seasonal Emergence of Invasive Bark Beetles in Subtropical South America

  • D. F. GomezEmail author
  • J. Skelton
  • M. De María
  • J. Hulcr
Ecology, Behavior and Bionomics


Several invasive bark beetle species have caused major economic and ecological losses in South America. Accurate predictions of beetle emergence times will make control efforts more efficient and effective. To determine whether bark beetle emergence can be predicted by season, temperature, or precipitation, we analyzed trapping records for three introduced pest species of bark beetles in Uruguay. We used trigonometric functions as seasonal predictors in generalized linear models to account for purely seasonal effects, while testing for effects of temperature and precipitation. Results show that all three beetle species had strong but unique seasonal emergence patterns and responded differently to temperature and precipitation. Cyrtogenius luteus (Blandford) emerged in summer and increased with precipitation but was not affected by temperature. Hylurgus ligniperda (Fabricius) emerged in winter and increased with temperature but was not affected by precipitation. Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) had a primary emergence in spring, and a smaller emergence in early summer, but showed no significant relationship with temperature or precipitation. This study shows that the emergence of these bark beetle species in Uruguay is influenced by seasonality more than by temperature and precipitation fluctuations. It also shows how seasonality can be easily incorporated into models to make more accurate predictions about pest population dynamics.


Scolytinae phenology forest pests flight activity Uruguay forestry 



We thank Cambium Forestal Uruguay and Weyerhaeuser Productos S.A. for helping with logistics and trapping.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: Demian F. Gomez and Maite De María; data collection: Demian F. Gomez; data analysis: James Skelton and Demian F. Gomez. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Demian F. Gomez and James Skelton, and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. Review and editing: Jiri Hulcr, Maite De María, James Skelton, Demian F. Gomez. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding Information

This project was funded by a cooperative agreement with the USDA Forest Service Forest Health Protection, the project INIA FO15, and the National Science Foundation DEB Award 1556283. DG and JH were partially funded by the USDA Forest Service, JS was funded by the National Science Foundation.

Supplementary material

13744_2019_760_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (136 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 135 kb)


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Copyright information

© Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Forest Resources and ConservationUniv of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Programa Nacional de Producción Forestal, Instituto Nacional de Investigación AgropecuariaMontevideoUruguay
  3. 3.Dept of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary MedicineGainesvilleUSA
  4. 4.Entomology and Nematology DeptUniv of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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