Neotropical Entomology

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 219–224 | Cite as

Diversity of Stink Bugs (Pentatomidae) Associated with Canola: Looking for Potential Pests

  • F M BianchiEmail author
  • A L Marsaro Júnior
  • J Grazia
  • P R V S Pereira
  • A R Panizzi
Ecology, Behavior and Bionomics


Canola (Brassicaceae: Brassica spp.) is an important feedstock for biodiesel production and a potential ingredient for use in the food industry. In different continents, various arthropod pests damage canola plants. Stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are present in all zoogeographical regions, and many species are recognized by their economic importance as crop pests. Our aim was to describe the composition, structure, and diversity of the assemblage of stink bugs sampled on canola in southern Brazil. A total of 878 pentatomids were captured, belonging to 27 species. The dominant species were Euschistus heros (F.) (n = 439), Dichelops furcatus (F.) (n = 160), and Nezara viridula L. (n = 79). The species richness estimators indicated the samples correspond from 79.7 to 93.1% of the richness estimated. Comparing canola to other monocultures, the richness of Pentatomidae was much superior. Otherwise, when compared to studies conducted in native vegetation and urban fragments, the richness is similar, and sometimes higher. This relatively high number of associations brings out the vulnerability of the canola fields according to the expansion of its cultivated area. Nine species of Pentatomidae are recorded on canola for the first time in Brazil. The most abundant species reported here are often stressed as stink bugs of economic importance in agro-ecosystems. The economic importance of each species varies greatly depending on the plant attacked. Detailed studies are needed to evaluate the damage caused to canola by stink bugs.


Heteroptera Neotropical brown stink bug green-belly stink bug southern green stink bug Brassica 



This work was supported by a grant to ALMJ and PRVSP from Embrapa through the project Manejo da entomofauna na cultura da canola FMB was supported by a fellowship from the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior CAPES-PNPD, Ministry of Education, Brazil. JG was supported by a fellowship from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico – CNPq (PQ#305009/2015-0). ARP was supported by a grant from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico – CNPq (PQ#400551/2016-0).

Authors’ Contributions

ALMJ, PRVSP, and ARP planned, designed, and executed field work; FMB and JG made the taxa identification; FMB analyzed the data; FMB and ALMJ wrote the first draft; all authors contributed to the final version of the paper.


  1. Aider M, Barbana C (2011) Canola proteins: composition, extraction, functional properties, bioactivity, applications as a food ingredient and allergenicity-a practical and critical review. Trends Food Sci Technol 22:21–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvares CA, Stape JZ, Sentelga PC, de Moraes Gonçalves JL, Sparovek G (2013) Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorol Z 22:711–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arizona Agricultural Statistics (2011) Arizona Agricultural Statistics Bulletin. United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Beltsville Accessed 12 Apr 2018Google Scholar
  4. Bergmann JC, Tupinambá DD, Costa OYA, Almeida JRM, Barreto CC, Quirino BF (2013) Biodiesel production in Brazil and alternative biomass feedstocks. Renew Sust Energ Rev 21:411–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bianchi FM, Mendonça MS, Campos LA (2014) Comparing vegetation types and anthropic disturbance levels in the Atlantic forest: how do Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) assemblages respond? Environ Entomol 43:1507–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bianchi FM, Deprá M, Ferrari A, Grazia J, Valente VL, Campos LA (2017) Total evidence phylogenetic analysis and reclassification of Euschistus Dallas within Carpocorini (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae). Syst Entomol 42:399–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campos LA, Bertolin TBP, Teixeira RA, Martins FS (2009) Diversidade de Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no sul de Santa Catarina. Iheringia Sér Zool 99:165–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. CANOLA GROWER’S MANUAL (2018) Chapter 10B – Insects. Accessed 11 Mar 2018
  9. CDFA (2012) California agricultural statistics review, 2011–2012, vegetable and melon crops. California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento Accessed 12 Apr 2018Google Scholar
  10. Colwell RK (2006) EstimateS: statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from simples, version 8.0. Accessed 22 Jan 2018
  11. CONAB (2018) Acompanhamento da safra brasileira de grãos, v. 7, Safra 2017/18, Sétimo levantamento, Brasília, p. 1–139 Accessed 15 Apr 2018
  12. Corrêa-Ferreira BS, De Azevedo J (2002) Soybean seed damage by different species of stink bugs. Agric For Entomol 4:145–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Demirel N (2009) Determination of heteroptera species on canola plants in Hatay province of Turkey. Afr J Agric Res 4:1226–1233Google Scholar
  14. Dias JCA (1992) Canola/colza: alternativa de inverno com perspectiva de produção de óleo comestível e energético. EMBRAPA-CPATB, Pelotas, p 46Google Scholar
  15. Faúndez EI, Luer A, Cuevas AG (2017) The establishment of Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister, 1835) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Chile, an avoidable situation? Arq Entomolóxicos 17:239–241Google Scholar
  16. Firmino JV, Mendonça MD, Lima IM, Grazia J (2017) Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in herbaceous and shrub strata of Atlantic Forest remnants in northeastern Brazil. Environ Entomol 46:480–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gonçalves WM, Maluf WR, Resende LV, Sarmiento CM, Licursi V, Moretto P (2017) Energy balance of biodiesel production from canola. Cienc Rural 47:e20151084. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grazia J, Panizzi AR, Greve C, Schwertner CF, Campos LA, Garbelotto TDA, Fernandes JAM (2015a) Stink bugs (Pentatomidae). In: Panizzi AR, Grazia J (eds) True bugs (Heteroptera) of the Neotropics. Springer, Netherlands, pp 681–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grazia J, Simões FL, Panizzi AR (2015b) Morphology, ontogeny, reproduction, and feeding of true bugs. In: Panizzi AR, Grazia J (eds) True bugs (Heteroptera) of the Neotropics. Springer, Netherlands, pp 21–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gu H, Fitt GP, Baker GH (2007) Invertebrate pests of canola and their management in Australia: a review. Austral Entomol 46:231–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: Palaeontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4:1–9Google Scholar
  22. IBGE (2004) Indicadores Agropecuários 1996–2003 Accessed 30 Jan 2018
  23. Klein JT, Redaelli LR, Barcellos A (2013) Andropogon bicornis (Poales, Poaceae): a hibernation site for Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in a rice-growing region of Southern Brazil. Neotrop Entomol 42:240–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kogan M, Turnipseed SG (1987) Ecology and management of soybean arthropods. Annu Rev Entomol 32:507–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Krebs CJ (1989) Ecological methodology. Harper & Row, New York, p 654Google Scholar
  26. Magurran A (1988) Ecological diversity and its measurement. British Library, Cambridge, p 177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marsaro Júnior AL, Panizzi AR, Pereira PRVS, Grazia J, Bianchi FM, Scarparo AP (2017) Percevejos (Heteroptera) fitófagos e predadores associados à cultura da canola no norte do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo Accessed 22 Mar 2018
  28. Mendonça MS, Schwertner CF, Grazia J (2009) Diversity of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera) in riparian forests of southern Brazil: taller forests, more bugs. Rev Bras Entomol 53:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Palumbo JC, Perring TM, Millar JG, Reed DA (2016) Biology, ecology, and management of an invasive stink bug, Bagrada hilaris, in North America. Annu Rev Entomol 61:453–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Panizzi AR (1997) Wild hosts of pentatomids: ecological significance and role in their pest status on crops. Annu Rev Entomol 42:99–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Panizzi AR (2013) History and contemporary perspectives of the integrated pest management of soybean in Brazil. Neotrop Entomol 42:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Panizzi AR (2015) Growing problems with stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae): species invasive to the US and potential neotropical invaders. Am Entomol 61:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Panizzi AR, McPherson JE, James DG, Javahery M, McPherson RM (2000) Sting bugs (Pentatomidae). In: Schaefer CW, Panizzi AR (eds) Heteroptera of economic importance. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 421–474Google Scholar
  34. Raymer PL (2002) Canola: an emerging oilseed crop. In: Janick J, Whipkey A (eds) Trends in new crops and new uses. ASHA Press, Alexandria, pp 122–126Google Scholar
  35. Reay-Jones FPF (2010) Spatial and temporal patterns of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in wheat. Environ Entomol 39:944–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Reeves RB, Greene JK, Reay-Jones FPF, Toews MD, Gerard PD (2010) Effects of adjacent habitat on populations of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in cotton as part of a variable agricultural landscape in South Carolina. Environ Entomol 39:1420–1427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schmidt LS, Barcellos A (2007) Abundância e riqueza de Heteroptera (Hemiptera) do Parque Estadual do Turvo, sul do Brasil: Pentatomoidea. Iheringia, Sér Zool 97:73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schwertner CF, Grazia J (2007) O gênero Chinavia Orian (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatominae) no Brasil, com chave pictórica para os adultos. Rev Bras Entomol 51:416–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shahidi F (1990) Canola and rapeseed: production, chemistry, nutrition, and processing technology. Van Nostrand, Springer Science & Business Media, p 355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Smaniotto LF, Panizzi AR (2015) Interactions of selected species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from leguminous crops with plants in the Neotropics. Fla Entomol 98:7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Soria MF, Degrande PE, Panizzi AR, Toews MD (2017) Economic injury level of the Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (F.) on cotton plants. Neotrop Entomol 46:324–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tindall KV, Williams BJ, Stout MJ, Geaghan JP, Leonard BR, Webster EP (2005) Yield components and quality of rice in response to graminaceous weed density and rice stink bug populations. Crop Prot 24:991–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tomm GO, Wietholter S, Dalmago GA, Santos HP (2009) Tecnologia para produção de canola no Rio Grande do Sul. Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo, RS, Documentos 92, p 88Google Scholar
  44. Tomm GO, Marsaro Júnior AL, Pereira PRVS, Salvadori JR (2014) Insetos In: Tomm GO (ed.) Cultivo da canola, 2 edn. Brasília, DF: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, 2014 (Sistema de produção, 3). Accessed 22 Mar 2018Google Scholar
  45. Weiler L, Ferrari A, Grazia J (2016) Phylogeny and biogeography of the South American subgenus Euschistus (Lycipta) Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Carpocorini). Insect Syst Evol 47:313–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • F M Bianchi
    • 1
    Email author
  • A L Marsaro Júnior
    • 2
  • J Grazia
    • 1
  • P R V S Pereira
    • 2
  • A R Panizzi
    • 2
  1. 1.Depto de ZoologiaUniv Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrasil
  2. 2.Lab de EntomologiaCentro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo – Embrapa TrigoPasso FundoBrasil

Personalised recommendations