Advertisement

Neotropical Entomology

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 143–151 | Cite as

Best Timing to Determine Field Parasitism by Released Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Against Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pest Populations

  • J CancinoEmail author
  • C Gálvez
  • A López
  • U Escalante
  • P Montoya
Biological Control
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

Our objective was to determine the timing of the highest parasitic activity by released Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in areas with fruits of sour orange and hog plums infested by Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (McQuart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), under shaded and sunny conditions. Percent parasitism along fruit sampling period was related to host availability, which was influenced by the fruit size rather than environmental conditions. The highest parasitism in sour orange was obtained just the first day after release, but in hog plums this was observed during the first 3 days without significant differences between them. The levels of fruit infestation and parasitism were higher in shaded trees in sour orange as in hog plums. The high availability of larvae and the small size of hog plums were decisive for obtaining high levels of parasitism and keeping parasitoids near the release points. By contrast, the size and thick rind of sour orange provided to the larvae a physical refuge that was associated with lower parasitism, causing that parasitoids spread out in search of hosts more accessible. In sour orange, parasitism was exclusively by D. longicaudata, while in hog plums, we additionally found the coexistence of four native parasitoid species. This information suggests that in sour orange, the sampling should be performed 1 day after release, while in hog plums, the samplings can be extended to within the first 3 days. Such sampling can serve to better estimate the effect of D. longicaudata releases against Anastrepha pest populations in different fruit types.

Keywords

Field parasitism, fruit sampling, augmentative releases, sour orange, hog plums, biological control 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the technical assistance of the Biological Control laboratory staff of Moscafrut Program. We also thank Javier Valle-Mora (ECOSUR) for the statistical advice. Fredy O. Galvez helped us choose the most representative fruit sampling areas. We appreciate the support by Francisco Ramirez y Ramirez, Director of the National Program of Fruit Flies in México.

References

  1. Aluja M, Guillén J, de la Rosa G, Cabrera M, Celedonio H, Liedo P, Hendrichs J (1987) Natural host plant survey of the economically important fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of Chiapas, México. Fla Entomol 70:329–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bompard A, Amat I, Fauvergue X, Spatao T (2013) Host-parasitoid dynamics and the success of biological control when parasitoids are prone to allee effects. PLoS One 8(10):e76768.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.Pone.0076768 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Camargos MG, Alvarenga CD, Giustolin TA, Paranhos BAJ, do Carmo Oliveira C, Mendes Rabelo M (2016) Dispersal capacity of fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in irrigated coffee plantations. Sci Agric 73:227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cancino J, Montoya P (2008) Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico. In: Sugayama RL, Zucchi RA, Ovruski SM, Sivisnki J (eds) Fruit flies of economic importance: from basic to applied knowledge, proceedings of the 7th international symposium on fruit flies of economic importance, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Press Color, Bahia, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  5. Cancino J, Ruiz L, López P, Moreno FM (2010) Cría masiva de parasitoides. In: Montoya P, Toledo J, Hernández E (eds) Moscas de la fruta: Fundamentos y procedimientos para su manejo. SyG Editores, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  6. Cancino J, López-Arriaga F (2015) Effect of hypoxia and its repercussions in packing pupae of the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for shipment. Biocontrol Sci Tech 26:665–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cancino J, López-Arriaga F, Montoya P (2016) Packaging conditions for the field release of the fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Aust Entomol 56:261–267.  https://doi.org/10.1111/aen12229 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Celedonio-Hurtado H, Aluja M, Liedo P (1995) Adult population fluctuations of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in tropical orchards habitats of Chiapas, Mexico. Environ Entomol 24:861–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cruz-López L, Malo E, Toledo J, Virgen A, del Mazo A, Rojas JC (2006) A new potential attractant for Anastrepha obliqua from Spondias mombin fruits. J Chem Ecol 32:351–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eitam A, Sivinski J, Holler T, Aluja M (2009) Biogeography of braconid parasitoids of the Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Florida. Ann Entomol Soc Am 97:928–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. García FRM, Ricalde MP (2013) Augmentative biological control using parasitoids for fruit fly management in Brazil. Insects 4:55–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grasman J, van Herwaarden O, Hemerik L, van Lenteren J (2001) A two-component of host-parasitoid interactions: determination of the size of inundative releases of parasitoids in biological pest control. Math Biosci 169:207–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Greathead DJ, Waage JK (1983) Opportunities for Biological Control of Agricultural Pests in Developing Countries. World Bank Technical Paper No. 11Google Scholar
  14. Harbi A, Pedro L. de, Beitia F, Chermiti B, Ferrara FA, Tormos J, Sabater-Muñoz B (2016) Parasitism activity of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aganaspis daci (Weld) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) under Mediterranean climatic conditions. In: Sabater-Muñoz B, Vera T, Pereira R, Orankanok W (eds) Proceedings of the 9th Interational Symposium of Fruit Flies of Economic Importance. CABI, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  15. Hawkins BA, Thomas MB, Hochberg ME (1993) Refuge theory and biological control. Science 262:1429–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hernández-Ortíz V (1992) El género Anastrepha Schiner en México (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomía, distribución y sus plantas huéspedes. Sociedad Mexicana de Entomología, Xalapa VeracruzGoogle Scholar
  17. Jesus-Barros CR, Adaime R, Oliviera MN, Silva WR, Costa-Neto SV, Souza-Filho MF (2012) Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) species, their host and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in five municipalities of the State of Amapá, Brazil. Fla Entomol 95:694–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. JMP® (n.d.) version 7.0.1, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, 1989–2007Google Scholar
  19. Leyva JL, Browning HW, Gilstrap FE (1991) Effect of host fruit species, size, and color on parasitization of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environ Entomol 20:1469–1474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. López M, Aluja M, Sivinski J (1999) Hymenopterous larval-pupal and pupal parasitoids of Anastrepha flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. Biol Control 15:119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Messing RH, Klungness LM, Purcell MF (1994) Short-range dispersal of mass-reared Diachasmimorpha longicaudata and D. tryoni (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), parasitoids of tephritid fruit flies. J Econ Entomol 87:975–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Montoya P, Liedo P, Benrey B, Cancino J, Barrera JF, Sivinski J, Aluja M (2000) Biological control of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango orchards through augmentative releases of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biol Control 18:216–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Montoya P, Cancino J, Zenil M, Santiago G, Gutiérrez JM (2007) The augmentative biological control component in the Mexican National Campaign against Anastrepha spp. fruit flies. In: Vreysen MJB, Robinson AS, Hendrichs J (eds) Area-wide control of insect pests. Springer, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  24. Montoya P, Cancino J, Pérez-Lachaud G, Liedo P (2011) Host size, superparasitism and sex ratio in mass reared Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a fruit fly parasitoid. BioControl 56:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Montoya P, Cancino J, Ruiz L (2012) Packing of fruit fly parasitoids for augmentative releases. Insects 3:889–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Montoya P, López P, Cruz J, López F, Cadena C, Cancino J, Liedo P (2017) Effect of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata releases on the native parasitoid guild attacking Anastrepha spp. larvae in disturbed zones of Chiapas, Mexico. BioControl 62:581–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ovruski SM, Aluja M, Sivinski J, Wharton R (2000) Hymenopteran parasitoids on fruit-infesting Tephritidae (Diptera) in Latin America and the Southern United States: diversity, distribution, taxonomic status and their use in fruit fly biological control. Integr Pest Manag Rev 5:81–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ovruski SM, Schliserman P (2012) Biological control of Tephritid fruit flies in Argentina: historical review, current status, and future trends for developing a parasitoid mass-releases program. Insects 3:870–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Paranhos BAJ, Mendes PCD, Papadopoulos NT, Walder JMM (2007) Dispersion patterns of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in citrus orchards in Southeast Brazil. Biocontrol Sci Tech 17:375–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. R core Team (2005) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria, URL http://www.R-project.org/
  31. Schliserman P, Ovruski SM, De Coll OR, Wharton R (2010) Diversity and abundance of hymenopterous parasitoids associated with Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in native and exotic host plants in Misiones, Northeastern, Argentina. Fla Entomol 93:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sime KR, Daane KM, Nedel H, Funk CS, Messing RH, Andrews JW Jr, Johnson MW, Pickett CH (2006) Diachasmimorpha longicaudata and D. kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), potential parasitoids of the olive fruit fly. Biocontrol Sci Tech 16:169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sivinski JM (1996) The past and potential of biological control of fruit flies. In: McPheron BA, Steck GJ (eds) Fruit fly pest: world assessment of their biology and management. St. Lucie Press, USAGoogle Scholar
  34. Sivinski J (1991) The influence of host morphology on parasitization rates in the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa. Entomophaga 36:447–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sivinski J, Calkins CO, Baranowski R, Harris D, Brambila J, Diaz J, Burns RE, Holler T, Dodson G (1996) Suppression of a Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Diptera: Tephritidae) population through augmented releases of the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biol Control 6:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sivinski J, Aluja M (2012) The roles of parasitoid foraging for hosts, food and mates in the augmentative control of Tephritidae. Insects 3:668–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Van Driesche RG (1983) Meaning of “percent parasitism” in studies of insect parasitoids. Environ Entomol 12:1611–1622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Van Driesche RG, Bellows TS Jr, Elkinton JS, Gould JR, Ferro DN (1991) The meaning of percentage parasitism revisited: solutions to the problem of accurately estimating total losses from parasitism. Environ Entomol 20:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang XG, Johnson MW, Daane KM, Yokoyama VY (2009) Larger olive fruit size reduces the efficiency of Psittalia concolor, as a parasitoid of the olive fruit fly. Biol Control 49:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wharton RA, Marsh PM (1978) New world Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on Tephritidae (Diptera). J Wash Acad Sci 68:147–167Google Scholar
  41. Wheler B, Torchiano M (2016) Lmperm: permutation for linear models. R Packaging Version 2.1.0Google Scholar
  42. Wong TTY, Ramadan MM, McInnis DO, Mochizuki N, Nishimoto JA, Herr JC (1991) Augmentative releases of Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to suppress a Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population in Kula, Maui, Hawaii. Biol Control 1:2–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wong TTY, Ramadan MM, Herr JC, McInnis DO (1992) Suppression of a Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population with concurrent parasitoid and sterile fly releases in Kula, Maui, Hawaii. J Econ Entomol 85:1671–1681CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • J Cancino
    • 1
    Email author
  • C Gálvez
    • 1
  • A López
    • 2
  • U Escalante
    • 2
  • P Montoya
    • 1
  1. 1.Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA-IICAMetapa de DomínguezMexico
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias AgrícolasUniv Autónoma de ChiapasHuehuetánMexico

Personalised recommendations