Neotropical Entomology

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 152–159 | Cite as

Traps and Baits for Luring Grapholita molesta (Busck) Adults in Mating Disruption-Treated Apple Orchards

  • A C Padilha
  • C J Arioli
  • M I C Boff
  • J M Rosa
  • M Botton
Pest Management


Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the main pests in apple crops in Brazil, where it is controlled by mating disruption (MD) with the use of the synthetic sex pheromone. However, sex-pheromone-based monitoring is not effective in MD-treated areas and may result in losses in production. This work has defined a trap model and a bait for luring G. molesta adults in MD apple orchards. The experiments were conducted in commercial apple orchards located in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. Three trap models—McPhail, Pot, and Ajar—and three baits—grape juice (25%) (GJ), sugarcane molasses (25%) (SM), and a solution containing brown sugar (8.69%) and terpinyl acetate (0.05%) (TAS)—were assessed for luring G. molesta adults in areas subjected to the mating disruption. The assessments were performed weekly by collecting the insects caught in the traps. In addition, time needed to replace traps was also assessed, as well as the selectivity of the trap/bait set. In the laboratory, G. molesta adults were sexed, and the females were dissected to confirm reproductive status. We discuss our results and sugarcane molasses (25%) captured the least number of G. molesta adults regardless of the tested traps. The Ajar/TAS, Pot/TAS, and McPhail/GJ captured the largest number of G. molesta adults. The Ajar/TAS was the most selective and easier to handle. TAS was efficient in catching G. molesta until 14 days after preparation of the solution. Ajar/TAS has potential to be used in the monitoring of G. molesta in apple orchards.


Oriental fruit moth terpinyl acetate brown sugar food bait sex pheromone 



The authors are thankful to the project “Development of technologies for the integrated management of pests and apple tree diseases/POMIPEST” of EMBRAPA Uva e Vinho for the provision of financial support.

Supplementary material

13744_2017_517_MOESM1_ESM.xls (30 kb)
ESM 1 (XLS 30 kb).


  1. Agosta WC (1990) (ed.) Chemical communication: the language of pheromones. Sci Am Lib, New York, 179 Google Scholar
  2. Ansebo L, Coracini MDA, Bengtsson M, Liblikas I, Ramirez M, Borg-Karlson AK, Tazin M, Witzgall P (2004) Antennal and behavioural response of codling moth Cydia pomonella to plant volatiles. J Appl Entomol 128:488–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arioli CJ, Carvalho GA, Botton M (2006) Monitoramento de Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) na cultura do pessegueiro com feromônio sexual sintético. BioAssay 1:1–5Google Scholar
  4. Arioli CJ, Botton M, Mafra-Neto A, Molinari F, Borges R, Pastori PL (2013) Feromônios sexuais no manejo de insetos-praga na fruticultura de clima temperado. Technical Bulletin, Epagri, Florianópolis, p 159Google Scholar
  5. Arioli CJ, Pastori PL, Botton M, Garcia MS, Borges R, Mafra-Neto A (2014) Assessment of SPLAT formulations to control Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in a Brazilian apple orchard. Chil J Agr Res 74:184–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagnoli B, Espadas AL, Palao JS, Perez BMG, Juan MP, Cascales AP, Ortega M, Sambado P, Lucchi A (2013) Performance of a wine trap device to monitor Lobesia botrana adult populations in Murcia vineyards. Integrated protection and production in viticulture, IOBC-WPRS bulletin. Acta Hort 85:145–150Google Scholar
  7. Biezanko CM (1983) Sobre as iscas que se usam para atrair os lepidópteros e algumas outras questões que se relacionam com este assunto. Chácaras e quintais 58:62–63Google Scholar
  8. Botton M, Arioli CJ, Coletta VD (2001) Monitoramento da mariposa oriental Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916) na cultura do pessegueiro. Embrapa: comunicado técnico, Bento Gonçalves 38:1–4Google Scholar
  9. Bruce TJA, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (2005) Insect host location: a volatile situation. Trends Plant Sci 10:269–274CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Campos JV, Garcia FRM (2001) Avaliação de Atrativos na captura de adultos de Grapholita molesta (Busch, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Oletreutidae). Revista da FZVA 7:13–18Google Scholar
  11. Cardé RT, Minks AK (1995) Control of moth pests by mating disruption: successes and constraints. Annu Rev Entomol 40:559–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cichon L, Fuentes-Contreras E, Garrido S, Lago J, Barros-Parada W, Basoalto E, Hilton R, Knight A (2013) Monitoring oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with sticky traps baited with terpinyl acetate and sex pheromone. J Appl Entomol 137:275–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dustan G (1964) Mating behaviour of the oriental fruit moth Grapholitha molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Can Entomol 96:1087–1093Google Scholar
  14. El-Sayed AM, Heppelthwaite VJ, Manning LM, Gibb AR, Suckling DM (2005) Volatile constituents of fermented sugar baits and their attraction to lepidopteran species. J Agric Food Chem 53:953–958CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Evenden ML, Mclaughlin JR (2004) Factors influencing the effectiveness of an attracticide formulation against the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta. Entomol Exp Appl 112:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hamamura Y (1970) The substances that control the feeding behaviour and the growth of the silkworm Bombyx mori. In: Wood DL, Silverstein RM, Nakajima M (eds) Control of insect behavior by natural products. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Howell JF (1991) Reproductive biology. In: Der Geest LPS V, Evenhuis HH (eds) Tortricid pests. Their biology, natural enemies and control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 174–257Google Scholar
  18. Il’Ichev AL, Gut LJ, Williams DG, Hossain MS, Jerie PH (2002) Area-wide approach for improved control of oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by mating disruption. Gen Appl Entomol 31:7–15Google Scholar
  19. Il'Ichev AL, Kugimiya S, Williams DG, Takabayashi J (2009) Volatile compounds from young peach shoots attract males of oriental fruit moth in the field. J Plant Int 4:289–294Google Scholar
  20. Knight A, Miliczky E (2003) Influence of trap colour on the capture of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), honeybees, and non-target flies. J Entomol Soc Brit Col 100:65–70Google Scholar
  21. Knight A, Pickel C, Hawkins L, Abbott C, Hansen R, Hull L (2011) Monitoring oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and peach twig borer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with clear delta-shaped traps. J Appl Entomol 135:106–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Knight A, Basoalto E, Hilton R, Molinari F, Zoller B, Hansen R, Hull L (2013) Monitoring oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with the Ajar trap in orchards under mating disruption. J Appl Entomol 137:650–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Knight A, Cichon L, Lago J, Fuentes-Contreras E, Barros-Parada W, Hull L, Basoalto E (2014) Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomones. J Appl Entomol 138:783–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kovanci OB, Walgenbach JF (2005) Monitoring the oriental fruit moth with pheromone and bait traps in apple orchards under different management regimes. Int J Pest Manag 24:273–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kovanci OB, Walgenbach JF, Kennedy GG, Schal C (2005) Effects of application rate and interval on the efficacy of sprayable pheromone for mating disruption of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta. Phytoparasitica 33:334–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mapa (2013) Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Instrução Normativa n° 1, de 4 de janeiro de 2013. Dispõe sobre o plano nacional de controle de resíduos e contaminantes em produtos de origem vegetal no ano-safra 2011/2012. Diário Oficial da União, Brasília, 1:10pGoogle Scholar
  27. Morais RM de, Redaelli LR, Santana J (2011) Anatomia comparada dos órgãos internos de reprodução de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Biot 22:59–67Google Scholar
  28. Myers CT, Krawczyk G, Agnello AM (2009) Response of tortricid moths and non-target insects to pheromone trap color in commercial apple orchards. J Entomol Sci, 44–69Google Scholar
  29. Nora I, Hickel E (2006) Pragas da macieira. In: A Cultura da Macieira. Epagri, Flori anópolis, 463–486Google Scholar
  30. Pastori PL, Arioli CJ, Botton M, Monteiro LB, Stoltman L, Mafra-Neto A (2012) Integrated control of two tortricid (Lepidoptera) pests in apple orchards with sex pheromones and insecticides. Rev Colomb Entomol 38:224–230Google Scholar
  31. Phillips JHH (1973) Monitoring for oriental fruit moth with synthetic sex pheromone. Environ Entomol 2:1039–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pim - Produção Integrada de Maçã (2015) Grade de Agrotóxicos e Agroquímicos Ciclo 2015/2016. Agapomi. [WWW document] URL
  33. R: A language and environment for statistical computing (2014) R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3–900051–07-0, URL R development core team version 3.1.0
  34. Renwick JAA, Chew FS (1994) Oviposition behavior in Lepidoptera. Annu Rev Entomol 39:377–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rice RE, Kirsch P (1990) Mating disruption of the oriental fruit moth in the United States. In: Behavior-modifying Chemicals for Pest Management: applications of pheromones and other attractants. (Eds) by Silverstein RL, Inscoe RM, Marcel Dekker MN, Ridgeway, New York, 193–211Google Scholar
  36. Rothschild GHL (1975) Control of oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)) with synthetic female pheromone. B Entomol Res 65:473–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Strapasson P (2012) Percepção química de Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) a substâncias alimentares e voláteis de maçã. Ph.D. Thesis Universidade Federal do Paraná, CuritibaGoogle Scholar
  38. Visser JH (1986) Host odor perception in phytophagous insects. Annu Rev Entomol 31:121–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yetter WP, Steiner LF (1931) A preliminary report on large-scale bait trapping of the oriental fruit moth in Indiana and Georgia. J Econ Entomol 24:1181–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A C Padilha
    • 1
    • 2
  • C J Arioli
    • 3
  • M I C Boff
    • 1
  • J M Rosa
    • 1
  • M Botton
    • 4
  1. 1.Univ do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC)Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias (CAV)LagesBrasil
  2. 2.Centro de Ciências Agrovetrinárias (CAV)Univ do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC)LagesBrasil
  3. 3.Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina – Estação Experimental de São JoaquimSão JoaquimBrasil
  4. 4.Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária – Embrapa Uva e VinhoBento GonçalvesBrasil

Personalised recommendations