Advertisement

Neotropical Entomology

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 19–25 | Cite as

Reproductive Biology of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

  • X-L Zheng
  • Z-Y Huang
  • J Li
  • Z-D Yang
  • X-H Yang
  • W LuEmail author
Ecology, Behavior and Bionomics

Abstract

Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an invasive pest in Eucalyptus plantations around the world. The successful colonization of L. invasa is possibly related to its reproductive biology. The objective of this study was to examine the reproductive biology of L. invasa. In Guangxi Province, the sex ratio (proportion of female, 0.99) of L. invasa was female-dominant throughout the year based on natural and artificial infestation. This result was similar to the ratios observed for other geographic populations in China, including those in Fujian (0.99), Guangdong (0.98), Hainan (0.95), Jiangxi (0.96), and Sichuan (0.99). The offspring sex ratio favored females. A large number of females emerged from the galls produced by females, with few males found. Galls on the petioles and midribs of Eucalyptus plants could be caused by newly emerged females with mature eggs. The lengths of the ovariole, spermatheca, common oviduct, and reproductive glands did not differ among L. invasa females, but their lateral oviducts showed differences from 0 to 42 h after emergence, indicating that this insect is proovigenic. These results could explain why L. invasa populations can rapidly increase in invaded areas.

Keywords

Geographic population Eucalyptus gall wasp Oviposition behavior Ovarian development Reproduction Sex ratio 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the anonymous referees and editor for their valuable comments on an earlier version, and also thanks Chu-Jiang Wei and Hua-Feng Zhang (Department of Fujian Forestry Pest Management), Jing Chen (Department of Luoding Forestry Pest Management, Guangdong Province), Tang Shi and Bing Sun (Department of Danzhou Forestry Pest Management, Hainan Province), Fan-Yu Zeng (Department of Nankang Forestry Pest Management, Jiangxi Province), Wen-Xia Teng (Department of Panzhihua Forestry Pest Management, Sichuan Province), and Qing-Cheng Huang and Kai Lin (Guangxi University) for their assistance during the field investigation. The research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31300549, 31560212), the Scientific Research Foundation of Guangxi University (XBZ160068) , and Guangxi Key Laboratory of Agric-Environment and Agric-Products Safety (2016, No. 133).

Supplementary material

13744_2017_502_MOESM1_ESM.mpg (12.9 mb)
ESM_1. Oviposition behavior of newly emerged female in Leptocybe invasa. (MPG 13190 kb)

References

  1. Akhtar MS, Patankar NV, Gaur A (2012) Observations on the biology and male of eucalyptus gall wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Indian J Entomol 74:173–175Google Scholar
  2. Aquino DA, Botto E, Loiacono MS, Pathauer P (2011) “Avispa de la agalla del eucalipto”, Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), en Argentina. Rev Invest Agrop 37:159–164Google Scholar
  3. Chen HY, Yao JM, Xu ZF (2009) First description of the male of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China. J Environ Entomol 31:285–287 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  4. Chen L, Jin QA, Wei ML, Liu HQ, Peng ZQ (2011) The influence of food sources and temperature on longevity of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle. Chin J Trop Crops 32:302–304 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  5. Chen YS, Liao ZM, Tu XY (2015) Study on resistance of different Eucalyptus varieties to Leptocybe invasa in southern Jiangxi. Northern Hort 11:106–109 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  6. Dhahri S, Ben Jamaa ML, Lo Verde G (2010) First record of Leptocybe invasa and Ophelimus maskelli eucalyptus gall wasps in Tunisia. Tunis J Plant Prot 5:231–236Google Scholar
  7. Gandon S, Varaldi J, Fleury F, Rivero A (2009) Evolution and manipulation of parasitoid egg load. Evolution 63:2974–2984CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Heimpel GE, de Boer JG (2008) Sex determination in the Hymenoptera. Annu Rev Entomol 53:209–230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. King BH (1987) Offspring sex ratio in parasitoid wasps. Q Rev Biol 62:367–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kumari KN, Kulkarni H, Vastrad AS, Goud KB (2010) Biology of eucalyptus gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Karnataka J Agri Sci 23:211–212Google Scholar
  11. Liang YP, Li JY, Wen XJ, Li YX (2010) Observation on the male ratio of Leptocybe invasa adult. For Pest Dis 29:21–22 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  12. Lu TC, Zhang YZ, Huang ZH, Huang J (2014) The effect on the longevity of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) studied by microcalorimetry and traditional methods. J Therm Anal Calorim 116:461–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Luo JT, Jiang JP, Wang JJ, Chen J, Zhou QH, Chen JR (2011) Bionomics of Leptocybe invasa in Bobai of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. For Pest Dis 30:10–12 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  14. Mendel Z, Protasov A, Fisher N, La Salle J (2004) Taxonomy and biology of Leptocybe invasa gen. & sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an invasive gall inducer on eucalyptus. Aust J Entomol 43:101–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nugnes F, Gebiola M, Monti MM, Gualtieri L, Giorgini M, Wang JG, Bernardo U (2015) Genetic diversity of the invasive gall wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and of its Rickettsia endosymbiont, and associated sex ratio differences. PLoS One 10:e0124660. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124660 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Petro R, Madoffe SS, Iddi S (2014) Infestation density of eucalyptus gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa Fisher and La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on five commercially grown eucalyptus species in Tanzania. J Sustain For 33:276–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sangtongpraow B, Charernsom K, Siripatanadilok S (2011) Longevity, fecundity and development time of Eucalyptus gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa Fisher and La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand. Thai J Agr Sci 44:155–163Google Scholar
  18. Stanley EF (1939) Environmental control of sex in hymenopterous insects. Ann Entomol Soc Am 32:11–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tang C, Wang XJ, Wan FH, Re SX, Peng ZQ (2008) The blue gum chalcid, Leptocybe invasa, invaded Hainan province. Chin J Appl Entomol 45:967–971 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  20. Tung GS, La Salle J (2010) Pest alert—a newly discovered invasion of gall-forming wasps, Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle, on eucalyptus trees in Taiwan. Formosan Entomol 30:241–244Google Scholar
  21. Udagedara UKSK, Karunaratne WAIP (2014) Biology, damage and parasitoids of the Eucalyptus gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), infesting Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae) in Maragamuwa plantation, Sri Lanka. Int J Trop Insect Sci 34:179–189Google Scholar
  22. Wang ZH, Chen Y, Huang J (2010) Reproductive system and oviposition behavior of Quadrastichu erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Fujian J Agri Sci 25:260–263 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  23. Wu YJ, Jiang XJ, Li DW, Luo JT, Zhou GF, Chang MS, Yang ZQ (2009) Leptocybe invasa, a new invasive forest pest making galls on twigs and leaves of eucalyptus trees in China. Sci Silvae Sin 45:161–163 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  24. Xu JX, Ren H, Zhao DY, Lin MS, Qiu HX, Zhong TK, Chen MR, Huang MY, Chen RP (2008) Study on the population regularity and spatial distribution pattern of Leptocybe invasa at eucalyptus. Guangdong Forestry Sci Technol 24:50–57 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  25. Yang ZD, Zhao YY, Yu SZ, Zheng XL, Xu L (2015) Rapid cold-hardening response of adult Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae). Afr Entomol 23:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhang HF, Kang WT, Chen SL, Tang XH, Lin XQ (2012) Study on the relationship between Eucalyptus clones and the damage degrees caused by Leptocybe invasa Fisher et La Salle. J Fujian Coll For 32:345–349 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  27. Zheng XL, Li J, Yang ZD, Xian ZH, Wei JG, Lei CL, Wang XP, Lu W (2014a) A review of invasive biology, prevalence and management of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae). Afr Entomol 22:68–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zheng XL, Yang ZD, Li J, Xian ZH, Yang J, Liu JY, Su S, Wang XL, Lu W (2014b) Rapid identification of both sexes in millimeter-scale of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae): a morphological perspective. Afr Entomol 22:643–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhu FL, Qiu BL, Ren SX (2013) Oviposition behavior of Leptocybe invasa. Chin J Appl Entomol 50:192–196 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  30. Zhu FL, Ren SX, Qiu BL, Wu JH (2015) Effect of temperature on life table parameters of Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Austral Entomol 54:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • X-L Zheng
    • 1
  • Z-Y Huang
    • 1
  • J Li
    • 1
  • Z-D Yang
    • 2
  • X-H Yang
    • 3
  • W Lu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of AgricultureGuangxi UnivNanningChina
  2. 2.College of ForestryGuangxi UnivNanningChina
  3. 3.Dept of Guangxi Forestry Pest ManagementNanningChina

Personalised recommendations