Neotropical Entomology

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 218–226 | Cite as

Paulogramma hydarnis (n. comb.) (Nymphalidae: Biblidinae): Distribution, Systematic Position, and Conservation Status of a Rare and Endangered Butterfly

  • A V L Freitas
  • L A Kaminski
  • C A Iserhard
  • L M Magaldi
  • N Wahlberg
  • K L Silva-Brandão
  • O J Marini-Filho
Systematics, Morphology and Physiology


The nymphalid Paulogramma hydarnis (Godart) (n. comb., previously in the genus Callicore) is an endangered butterfly present in a few montane sites in the Atlantic Forest in the Southeastern Brazil. The precise systematic position of P. hydarnis was previously unknown. Based on molecular data, we find that it is sister to Paulogramma pygas (Godart) (n. comb., also previously in Callicore), a common and widespread species in the Neotropics. In addition, we find that Callicore is not monophyletic and that “Callicorehydarnis (along with other species) is more related to the genus Paulogramma, and should thus be placed in that genus. The genus Paulogramma is now composed by the following species: Paulogramma pyracmon (Godart), Paulogramma eunomia (Hewitson) n. comb., Paulogramma hydarnis (Godart) n. comb., Paulogramma hystaspes (Fabricius) n. comb., Paulogramma pygas (Godart) n. comb., and Paulogramma tolima (Hewitson, 1852) n. comb. Museum specimens and field data report P. hydarnis in four sites in Southeastern Brazil. Recently, P. hydarnis was recorded for the first time at Parque Nacional do Caparaó, states of Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais, expanding its distribution about 200 km northward of the previously known limit. Although regularly recorded in some sites, most records are historic, before the 1960s, and the current conservation situation of this species is delicate, deserving attention.


Atlantic Forest Callicore Callicorini Caparaó montane fauna 



We thank Waldomiro de Paula Lopes, who facilitated the work in the Parque Nacional do Caparaó, to Léo Nascimento, who facilitated the work in the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, to ICMBio for the research permits (SISBIO nº 10802-5), and to Ricardo Campos and the Field Ecology Course of “Universidade Federal de Viçosa” for the logistic support. We thank Gerardo Lamas and three anonymous reviewers for several suggestions and critical reading of the manuscript. The following people helped with information from the Museums: Olaf Mielke (DZUP), Blanca Huertas and John Chainey (BMNH), Bob Robbins and Brian Harris (USNM), Alexandre Soares (MNRJ), Marcio Felix (CEIOC), Marcelo Duarte (MZSP), Jacques Pierre and Rose Nguyen (MNHN), and Keith Willmott and Elena Ortiz Acevedo (FLMNH). Pierre Boyer kindly provided pictures of two individuals from the ZMUC. Mr. Nirton Tangerini also provided information from coastal Rio de Janeiro. AVLF thanks the Brazilian Research Council—CNPq (fellowship 302585/2011-7), and the National Science Foundation (DEB-1256742). LAK was supported by FAPESP (10/51340-8) and CNPq (163119/2013-9). CAI was supported by FAPESP (2011/08433-8). This publication is part of the RedeLep “Rede Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Lepidópteros” SISBIOTA-Brasil/CNPq (563332/2010-7), of the project “Identificação Molecular de Biodiversidade de Invertebrados Terrestres” (grant 564954/2010-1) included in the “Rede Nacional de Identificação Molecular da Biodiversidade—BR-BoL” (MCT/CNPq/FNDCT 50/2010), and of the BIOTA-FAPESP Program (11/50225-3).


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Copyright information

© Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • A V L Freitas
    • 1
  • L A Kaminski
    • 1
  • C A Iserhard
    • 2
  • L M Magaldi
    • 1
  • N Wahlberg
    • 3
  • K L Silva-Brandão
    • 4
  • O J Marini-Filho
    • 5
  1. 1.Depto de Biologia Animal e Museu de Zoologia, Instituto de BiologiaUniv Estadual de CampinasCampinasBrasil
  2. 2.Depto de Ecologia, Zoologia e GenéticaUniv Federal de PelotasPelotasBrasil
  3. 3.Dept of Biology, Lab of GeneticsUniv of TurkuTurkuFinland
  4. 4.Centro de Energia Nuclear na AgriculturaUniv de São PauloPiracicabaBrasil
  5. 5.Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação da Biodiversidade do Cerrado e CaatingaInstituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da BiodiversidadeBrasíliaBrasil

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