Practical synthesis of canthaxanthin
In this study, a novel route for the total synthesis of canthaxanthin is described. The synthesis is firstly based on an epoxidation of α-ionone with metachloroperbenzoic acid to afford the epoxide, followed by conversion of the epoxide to 3-hydroxyl-β-ionone in the presence of sodium methoxide. Next, 3-hydroxyl-C14-aldehyde was obtained by a Darzens condensation with 4-hydroxyl-β-ionone and methyl chloroacetate, which can be converted to 3-hydroxyl-C15-phophonate via a Wittig–Horner condensation with tetraethyl methylenebisphosphonate. Then, a Wittig–Horner condensation with 3-hydroxyl-C15-phosphonate and C10-trienedial resulted in 4,4′-dihydroxyl-β-carotene, followed by an oxidation afforded the target product canthaxanthin. The overall yield of this route is 37% from α-ionone. The synthetic steps are easily operated and are practical for the large-scale production.
KeywordsCanthaxanthin Wittig–Horner condensation Total synthesis Phosphonate
This study was supported by the Public Projects of Zhejiang Province of China (No. LGG19B020002).
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