Inter-relation between size and arrangement of TiO2 nanoparticle layers on efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

  • Pooya Tahay
  • Meisam Babapour Gol Afshani
  • Nasser SafariEmail author
Original Paper


The effects of TiO2 layer arrangement as photo-anode on the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells were investigated and presented. Four TiO2 nanoparticles being different from the TiO2 particle sizes and phases were prepared and characterized with TEM, AFM and XRD analyses. These TiO2 particles were used to prepare three-layered photo-anode with different layer arrangements. The J–V measurements and impedance spectroscopy of the assembled solar cells with these photo-anodes and N3 dye were investigated and interpreted. The photo-anode in which the particles were arranged from large to small (CBA) and the photo-anode in which the particle size is equal (BBB) presented the best efficiency. The BBB performance was related to the appropriate particle size in the B layer and was a driving force for electron transfer, which is inducted by the oxidized dyes. In the CBA sample, this driving force was enhanced by the different particle sizes in the layer interfaces.

Graphical abstract


TiO2 Electron transfer Layer arrangement Photo-anode Particle-size distribution Dye-sensitized solar cells 



We thank S. Ali Alavi for AFM analysis. This work was supported by Shahid Beheshti University and Iran National Science Foundation (INSF).

Author contributions

The manuscript was written through contributions of all authors. All authors have given approval to the final version of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

13738_2019_1596_MOESM1_ESM.docx (380 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 379 KB)


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Copyright information

© Iranian Chemical Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and OilShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran

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