Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 593–602 | Cite as

An electrochemical ceruloplasmin aptasensor using a glassy carbon electrode modified by diazonium-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes

  • Esmaeel Haghshenas
  • Tayyebeh MadrakianEmail author
  • Abbas Afkhami
  • Haidar Saify Nabiabad
Original Paper


Fast and accurate determination of biological compounds in human fluids plays a crucial role in clinical analysis. Low levels and high levels of ceruloplasmin (Cp) in serum cause several diseases such as Wilson’s disease, therefore, its accurate determination in human fluids is important. A selective and sensitive electrochemical biosensor was developed for Cp detection using a Cp-specific recognition aptamer. The proposed aptasensor was based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with diazonium-functional multiwall carbon nanotubes. The aptamer was linked to the electrode surface using electrochemical approach, followed by chemical immobilization of aminated-aptamer. All fabrication steps were accompanied by changes to the electrochemical parameters. The binding of Cp to aptamer was monitored by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The effective parameters were optimized. The calibration curve for Cp concentration was linear at 0.02–3.0 ng mL−1 and 3.0–80.0 ng mL−1 with a detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of 3.7 pg mL−1. The fabricated aptasensor can serve as a powerful sensor for rapid diagnosis of Cp in the human serum sample and shows a great potential for practical bioapplication.


Ceruloplasmin Aptamer Multiwalled carbon nanotubes Aptasensor 



The authors acknowledge the Bu-Ali Sina University Research Council and Center of Excellence in Department of Environmentally Friendly Method for Chemical Synthesis (CEDEFMCS) for providing support to this work.


  1. 1.
    C. Sun, Q. Han, D. Wang, W. Xu, W. Wang, W. Zhao, M. Zhou, Anal. Chim. Acta 850, 33 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Hermann, D.J. Patel, Science 287, 820 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. Luzi, M. Minunni, S. Tombelli, M. Mascini, TrAC Trend. Anal. Chem. 22, 810 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Seok Kim, N.H. Ahmad Raston, M. Bock Gu, Biosens. Bioelectron. 76, 2 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    X. Liu, Z. Cheng, H. Fan, S. Ai, R. Han, Electrochim. Acta 56, 6266 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    N.O. Fischer, T.M. Tarasow, J.B.H. Tok, Anal. Biochem. 373, 121 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H.-J. Lee, B.C. Kim, K.-W. Kim, Y.K. Kim, J. Kim, M.-K. Oh, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3550 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    E.J. Cho, L. Yang, M. Levy, A.D. Ellington, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 2022 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Liu, J. Song, S. Shuang, C. Dong, J.D. Brennan, Y. Li, ACS Nano 8, 5564 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. Yang, C.W. Fung, E.J. Cho, A.D. Ellington, Anal. Chem. 79, 3320 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. Zhou, L.-J. Ou, X. Chu, G.-L. Shen, R.-Q. Yu, Anal. Chem. 79, 7492 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K.-J. Huang, Y.-J. Liu, G.-W. Shi, X.-R. Yang, Y.-M. Liu, Sens. Actuators B 201, 579 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G.X. Pan, X.H. Xia, F. Cao, P.S. Tang, H.F. Chen, Electrochem. Commun. 34, 146 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Z.A. ALOthman, M. Habila, E. Yilmaz, M. Soylak, Microchim. Acta 177, 397 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R.J. Chen, Y. Zhang, D. Wang, H. Dai, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 3838 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    X. Liu, Y. Li, J. Zheng, J. Zhang, Q. Sheng, Talanta 81, 1619 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. Zhou, D.-J. Li, L. Gai, J.-P. Wang, Y.-B. Li, Sens. Actuators B 162, 201 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. Bai, R. Yuan, Y. Chai, Y. Yuan, L. Mao, Y. Zhuo, Analyst 136, 1840 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. Garcinuño, I. Ojeda, M. Moreno-Guzmán, A. González-Cortés, P. Yáñez-Sedeño, J.M. Pingarrón, Talanta 118, 61 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    O.Y. Kim, M.-J. Shin, J. Moon, J.H. Chung, Clin. Biochem. 44, 351 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    I. Ojeda, M. Moreno-Guzmán, A. González-Cortés, P. Yáñez-Sedeño, J.M. Pingarrón, Electroanalysis. 25, 2166 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    B.L. Somani, V. Ambade, Clin. Biochem. 40, 571 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.D. Korman, I. Volenberg, J. Balko, J. Webster, F.V. Schiodt, R.H. Squires, R.J. Fontana, W.M. Lee, M.L. Schilsky, Pediatric and Adult Acute Liver Failure Study Groups, Hepatology 48, 1167 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    N. Zhao, L. Jin, G. Fei, Z. Zheng, C. Zhong, Parkinson Relat. Disord. 20, 1177 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T.C. Larkin, T.A. Fingleton, M. McCusker, M. Cassidy, G. Gunzer, C.A. Lepp, E. Gamboa, Clin. Lab. 50, 193 (2004)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    E.P. Gil, R.M.-M. Carra, A.S. Misiego, Anal. Chim. Acta 315, 69 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    V. Lopez-Avila, O. Sharpe, W.H. Robinson, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 386, 180 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    F.W. Sunderman Jr., S. Nomoto, Clin. Chem. 16, 903 (1970)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    K.H. Schosinsky, H.P. Lehmann, M.F. Beeler, Clin. Chem. 20, 1556 (1974)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    H. Wang, D. Li, Z. Wu, G. Shen, R. Yu, Talanta 62, 199 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Hamidi, N. Zarei, Drug Test Anal. 1, 214 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. Madrakian, E. Haghshenas, A. Afkhami, Sens. Actuators B 193, 451 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. Wang, S. Li, Y. Zhang, Electrochim. Acta 55, 4436 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R.N. Hegde, N.P. Shetti, S.T. Nandibewoor, Talanta 79, 361 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Moreno-Guzmán, I. Ojeda, R. Villalonga, A. González-Cortés, P. Yáñez-Sedeño, J.M. Pingarrón, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 82 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. Ocaña, S. Lukic, M. del Valle, Microchim. Acta 182, 2045 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    C. Ocaña, M. del Valle, Microchim. Acta 181, 355 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. Ocaña, A. Hayat, R.K. Mishra, A. Vasilescu, M. del Valle, J.-L. Marty, Bioelectrochemistry 105, 72 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    E. Matysiak, B. Wagner, M. Bystrzejewski, I.P. Grudzinski, A.M. Nowicka, Sens. Actuators B 221, 1461 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Iranian Chemical Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of ChemistryBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIran
  2. 2.Department of Production of Medical PlantNahavand UniversityNahavandIran

Personalised recommendations