Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 1131–1138 | Cite as

Application of a new sample preparation method based on surfactant-assisted dispersive micro solid phase extraction coupled with ultrasonic power for easy and fast simultaneous preconcentration of toluene and xylene biomarkers from human urine samples

  • Fariborz Omidi
  • Mohammad Behbahani
  • Monireh Khadem
  • Farideh Golbabaei
  • Seyed Jamaleddin ShahtaheriEmail author
Original Paper


A fast and easy surfactant-assisted dispersive micro-solid phase extraction method coupled with ultrasonic power was used for the simultaneous preconcentration and determination of low levels of hippuric and methyl hippuric acid in human urine samples. In the first step, magnetic nanoparticles was coated by titanium oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4/TiO2 NPs), afterward characterized by the scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. In the next step, anionic surfactants were thus combined with the synthesized magnetic nanoparticles to create a new adsorbent for increasing the simultaneous extraction of hippuric and methyl hippuric acid. After elution of extracted target molecules by the sorbent, the concentration of these molecules were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC–UV). Meanwhile, a statistical approach known as Box–Behnken design was applied for optimizing significant parameters. With the optimum parameters anticipated by the experimental design, the limit of quantification (LOQ) acquired was reported to be 3 µg L− 1, and the calibration curve was linear within the concentrations of 3–1000 µg L− 1. Finally, the method was effectively implemented for the determination of low levels of hippuric and methyl hippuric acid in human urine samples.


Hippuric and methyl hippuric acid Surfactant-assisted dispersive micro solid phase extraction Box–Behnken design Human urine samples High-performance liquid chromatography 



This work has been funded and supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences grant (Project No. 35971). The authors would like to acknowledge the University and also the laboratory personnel of occupational health engineering department for their kind help.

Supplementary material

13738_2018_1588_MOESM1_ESM.docx (376 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 375 KB)


  1. 1.
    L.L. Aylward, H.A. Barton, S.M. Hays, Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 51, S27 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Heibati, K.J.G. Pollitt, J.Y. Charati, A. Ducatman, M. Shokrzadeh, A. Karimi, M. Mohammadyan, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 149, 19 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Kandyala, S.P.C. Raghavendra, S.T. Rajasekharan, J. Oral. Maxillofac. Pathol 14, 1 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Niaz, H. Bahadar, F. Maqbool, M. Abdollahi, EXCLI J. 14, 1167 (2015)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Fujii, S. Kawabe, T. Horike, T. Taguchi, M. Ogata, J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 730, 41 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Ogata, T. Taguchi, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 61, 131 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. Ahmadi, H. Asgharloo, S. Sadeghi, V. Gharehbagh-Aghababa, H. Adibi, J. Chromatogr. B 877, 2945 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Ohashi, T. Mamiya, K. Mitani, B. Wang, T. Takigawa, S. Kira, H. Kataoka, Anal. Chim. Acta 566, 167 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L.D. Pagnotto, L.M. Lieberman, Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 28, 129 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    T. Sakai, Y. Ninuma, S. Yanagihara, K. Ushio, J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 276, 182 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Inoue, M. Kitade, T. Hino, H. Oka, Food Chem 126, 1909 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C.P. Frederick, NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMNM), 2003, NIOSH 8301 (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, 2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. Kongtip, J. Vararussami, V. Pruktharathikul, J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 751, 199 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Arabi, M. Ghaedi, A. Ostovan, Microchim. Acta 184, 879 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    F. Ghamari, A. Bahrami, Y. Yamini, F.G. Shahna, A. Moghimbeigi, Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 99, 760 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.S. Neto, J.C. Rodrigues, C. Fernandes, G.M. Titato, C. Alves, F.M. Lanças, J. Chromatogr. A 1105, 71 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Q. Gao, D. Luo, J. Ding, Y.-Q. Feng, J. Chromatogr. A 1217, 5602 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Anastassiades, S.J. Lehotay, D. Štajnbaher, F.J. Schenck, J. AOAC Int. 86, 412 (2003)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Behbahani, F. Omidi, M.G. Kakavandi, G. Hesam, Appl. Organomet Chem. 31, e3758 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    F. Omidi, M. Behbahani, H.S. Abandansari, A. Sedighi, S.J. Shahtaheri, J. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng. 12, 137 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    F. Omidi, M. Behbahani, M.K. Bojdi, S.J. Shahtaheri, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 395, 213 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Khadem, F. Faridbod, P. Norouzi, A. Rahimi Foroushani, M.R. Ganjali, S.J. Shahtaheri, R. Yarahmadi, Electroanalysis 29, 708 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. Pouya, M. Arabi, G. Absalan, Appl. Organomet. Chem. 32, e4040 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Q. Zhang, X. Zhao, H.X. Wei, J.H. Li, J. Luo, Appl. Organomet. Chem. 31, e3608 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Hemmati, M. Rajabi, A. Asghari, Microchim. Acta 185, 160 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Tamoradi, M. Ghadermazi, A. Ghorbani-Choghamarani, Appl. Organomet. Chem. 32, e3974 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S.R. Yazdinezhad, A. Ballesteros-Gómez, L. Lunar, S. Rubio, Anal. Chim. acta 778, 31 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    T. Cheng, Y. Zhang, X. Liu, X. Zhang, H. Zhang, Microchim. Acta 184, 271 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. Citak, M. Tuzen, Food Chem. Toxicol. 48, 1399 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Naeemullah, T. Tuzen, D. Gul Kazi, M. Citaka, Soylak, J. Anal. At. Spectrom 28, 1441 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M.G. Kakavandi, M. Behbahani, F. Omidi, G. Hesam, Food Anal. Methods 10, 2454 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    NIOSH. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) 2003 Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), 4th ed. Hippuric and Methyl Hippuric acids in urine: method 8301(3):1–5 (2003). Accessed Nov 2018
  33. 33.
    J.Z. Wang, X.Y. Lu, N.P. Zhao, Y.Y. Cheng, S. Zeng, Biomed. Chromatogr 21, 497 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Iranian Chemical Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fariborz Omidi
    • 1
  • Mohammad Behbahani
    • 2
  • Monireh Khadem
    • 3
  • Farideh Golbabaei
    • 3
  • Seyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH)Kermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  2. 2.Faculty of EngineeringShohadaye Hoveizeh University of TechnologySusangerdIran
  3. 3.Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Institute for Environmental ResearchTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations