Graphene-filled versus ionic liquid-filled poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) electrolytic membranes for high energy devices: thermophysical and electrochemical aspects

  • Faheem Ullah
  • Fatima Javed
  • Hazizan Md. AkilEmail author
Original Research


The recent developments of membrane technology that requires the composite membrane to work effectively in high energy devices have prompted the inclusion of graphene (GO) and N-butyltrimethylammonium iodide (IL) into a poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVDF-co-HFP) host polymer. From the characterizations that were conducted using FTIR, SEM, TGA, DSC, universal testing machine, Hot Disk Thermal Constants Analyser and the RF impedance spectroscopy, the IL-filled PVDF-co-HFP membrane (1P/IL) was found to have a better dielectric and thermal conductivity, while the decreased porosity of the 1P/GO membrane was discovered to have contributed to its better mechanical performance. Apart from the moieties, which had filled the gaps of the porous architecture and formed a firmer configuration from the chemical junctions with the PVDF-co-HFP, the IL in the membrane was also observed to have increased the density of the accumulated charge carriers and polarization with a better crystallinity control, porosity and ion transportation of the dielectric constant. Based on the above results, the introduction of an ionic liquid (with its plasticizing effect, well-dispersed assembling and diffusional motions) can thus be regarded as significantly improving the properties of the PVDF-co-HFP and particularly in the hi-tech targeted applications of high energy devices such as those of the high-energy Li-ion batteries.


PVDF-co-HFP Graphene N-Butyltrimethylammonium iodide Thermal stability and electrical conductivity Mechanical and dielectric performance 



This research is supported by the School of Material and Mineral Source Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia under the project Grant of FRGS-203/PBAHAN-6071337.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest


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Copyright information

© Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials and Mineral Resources EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryShaheed Benazir Bhutto Women UniversityPeshawarPakistan

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