Advertisement

Iranian Polymer Journal

, Volume 28, Issue 12, pp 1015–1021 | Cite as

Enhanced performance of urea–glyoxal polymer with oxidized cassava starch as wood adhesive

  • Hui Wang
  • Feng Wang
  • Guanben DuEmail author
Original Research
  • 4 Downloads

Abstract

To eliminate the hazard of formaldehyde from wood-based products to human and environment, formaldehyde was replaced by glyoxal to produce wood adhesive. Urea–glyoxal (UG) resin was environmental friendly, while its bonding strength was very poor, especially its water resistance. The object of this work was to improve the mechanical properties of UG resin by oxidized cassava starch addition. Hence, the urea–glyoxal (UG) resin was synthesized and the oxidized cassava starch was added through mechanical mixing. The bonding strength, structure distributions, and the morphology features of the cured UG resin system were investigated by producing a three-layer plywood, FTIR, and SEM analysis. The results of dry and wet shear strength of plywood indicated that there was a positive effect of oxidized cassava starch on bonding strength of a three-layer plywood, and when the oxidized cassava starch content was increased to 45%, the dry strength could reach 1.21 MPa, and the wet strength was 0.72 MPa. The FTIR results showed that chemical reaction between UG resin and oxidized cassava starch was beneficial to the branched structure formation and higher cohesion strength of UG resin. Meanwhile, the tightness structure of enhanced UG resin system was observed by SEM analysis as well. These improved properties were contributed to water resistance improvement of UG resin.

Keywords

Oxidized cassava starch Urea–glyoxal polymer Wood adhesive Bonding strength Structures 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Yunnan Province Agriculture Joint Special Project (2018FG001-052) and the Scientific Research Foundation of Southwest Forestry University (111421).

References

  1. 1.
    Pizzi A (1994) Advanced wood adhesives technology. Int J Adhes Adhes 15:198–199Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dunky M (2004) Adhesives based on formaldehyde condensation resins. Macromol Symp 217:417–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tohmura S, Hse C, Higuchi M (2000) Formaldehyde emission and high-temperature stability of cured urea-formaldehyde resins. J Wood Sci 46:303–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tang X, Bai Y, Duong A, Smith M, Li L, Zhang L (2009) Formaldehyde in China: production, consumption, exposure levels, and health effects. Environ Int 35:1210–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vosoughi S, Khavanin A, Salehnia M, Mahabadi H, Soleimanian A (2012) Effects of simultaneous exposure to formaldehyde vapor and noise on mouse testicular tissue and sperm parameters. J Health Scope 1:110–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Deng S, Du G, Li X, Zhang J, Pizzi A (2014) Performance and reaction mechanism of zero formaldehyde-emission urea–glyoxal (UG) resin. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 45:2029–2038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ferdosian F, Pan Z, Gao G, Zhao B (2017) Bio-based adhesives and evaluation for wood composites application. Polymers 9:70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Deng S, Pizzi A, Du G, Zhang J, Zhang J (2014) Synthesis, structure, and characterization of glyoxal–urea–formaldehyde cocondensed resins. J Appl Polym Sci 31:41009–41019Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Han S, Cui J, Ren L, Zhou X (2014) Preliminary study on synthesis and adhesion properties of urea–glyoxal–polyvinyl alcohol resin. J Nanjing For Univ (Natural Sciences Edition) 38:21–25Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Younesi-Kordkheili H (2017) Improving physical and mechanical properties of new lignin–urea–glyoxal resin by nanoclay. Eur J Wood Wood Prod 75:885–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Younesi-Kordkheili H, Pizzi A (2018) A comparison between the influence of nanoclay and isocyanate on urea–glyoxal resins. Int Wood Prod J 9:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Deng S, Pizzi A, Du G, Lagel M, Delmotte L, Abdalla S (2018) Synthesis, structure characterization and application of melamine–glyoxal adhesive resins. Eur J Wood Wood Prod 76:283–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhao X, Peng L, Wang H, Wang Y, Zhang H (2018) Environment-friendly urea-oxidized starch adhesive with zero formaldehyde-emission. Carbohyd Polym 181:1112–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xu Q, Wen J, Wang Z (2016) Preparation and properties of cassava starch-based wood adhesives. BioResources 11:6756–6767Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang S, Zhang F, Chen F, Pang Z (2013) Preparation of a crosslinking cassava starch adhesive and its application in coating paper. BioResources 8:3574–3589Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hsieh C, Liu W, Whaley J, Shi Y (2019) Structure, properties, and potential applications of waxy tapioca starches—a review. Trend Food Sci Technol 83:225–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kamke F, Lee J (2007) Adhesive penetration in wood: a review. Wood Fiber Sci 39:205–220Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jeong B, Park B (2019) Effect of molecular weight of urea–formaldehyde resins on their cure kinetics, interphase penetration into wood, and adhesion in bonding wood. Wood Sci Technol 53:665–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nakason C, Wohmang T, Kaesaman A, Kiatkamjonwong S (2010) Preparation of cassava starch-graft-polyacrylamide superabsorbents and associated composites by reactive blending. Carbohyd Polym 81:348–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sheng Y, Wang Q, Xu X, Jiang W, Gan S, Zou H (2011) Oxidation of cornstarch using oxygen as oxidant without catalyst. LWT Food Sci Technol 44:139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Singha AS, Kapoor H (2014) Effects of plasticizer/cross-linker on the mechanical and thermal properties of starch/PVA blends. Iran Polym J 23:655–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hashemi-Nasirabad M, Salehi-Mobarakeh H, Mahdavian A (2018) Improvement of UF/fiberglass mat properties used in roofing shingles through emulsion polymers and nanoclay addition. Iran Polym J 27:67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Southwest Forestry University, Yunnan Key Laboratory of Wood Adhesives and Glued ProductsKunmingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Key Lab for Forest Resources Conservation and Utilization in the Southwest Mountains of ChinaSouthwest Forestry University, Ministry of EducationKunmingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations