Iranian Polymer Journal

, Volume 28, Issue 11, pp 909–919 | Cite as

Adhesion optimization of rubber compound on polyester cord to retain physico-mechanical properties

  • Hossein RoshanaeiEmail author
  • Henrik Margharian Pekachaki
  • Fatemeh Khodkar
Original Research


The adhesion of the rubber compound to polyester cords is an important parameter in tire production. The adhesion of the rubber compound and the mechanical properties of the rubber compound containing polyester cord could be decreased under environmental conditions. Hence, in this paper, the adhesion of common rubbers like natural rubber (NR)/styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) compounds to polyester cords was optimized by Box–Behnken design, while physico-mechanical properties were retained in desirable values. The effects of factors such as silica, resorcinol (as methylene acceptor), hexamethoxymethyl melamine formaldehyde (HMMM, as methylene donor), N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide (CBS) and 2,2-dithiobis(benzothiazole) (MBTS) contents on adhesion and physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. The results have shown that the optimized values for each variable including silica, resorcinol, HMMM and CBS/MBTS were 5.76, 1.17, 1.45 and 0.81/0.19 phr, respectively. As HMMM used in this work includes 30% (wt) inert filler as the carrier, the HMMM/resorcinol ratio is near 1:1. In this formulation, the adhesion value of 15.7 kgf was obtained and tear strength reached 27.4 kgf/cm. The results showed that silica improved the adhesion because of longer time for the reaction of resorcinol with HMMM. To verify the optimized values for each variable, the formulation was again prepared and the results obtained from modeling data and experimental results showed the proper fitting of the modeling data with the experimental results.


Box–behnken Physico-mechanical properties Resorcinol Silica Styrene–butadiene rubber 

Supplementary material

13726_2019_753_MOESM1_ESM.tif (77 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 77 kb)
13726_2019_753_MOESM2_ESM.tif (123 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (TIFF 124 kb)
13726_2019_753_MOESM3_ESM.tif (79 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (TIFF 79 kb)
13726_2019_753_MOESM4_ESM.tif (129 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (TIFF 130 kb)
13726_2019_753_MOESM5_ESM.tif (74 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (TIFF 74 kb)


  1. 1.
    Li Z, Wan J, Zhang L, Cui J, Zhao S (2017) Effects of heat and moisture on characteristics, tensile properties of RFL-coated rayon cords, and their adhesion with NR/SBR matrix. J Appl Polym Sci 134:45559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ebnesajjad S (2009) Adhesives technology handbook, 2nd edn. William Andrew Publishing, NorwichGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Crowther B (2001) Handbook of rubber bonding. Rapra Technology Limited, UKGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dierkes W, Louis A, Noordermeer J, Blume A (2019) A novel approach of promoting adhesion of reinforcing cord to elastomers by plasma polymerization. Polymers 11:577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Walkup M (2013) Resorcinol in tire applications. Tire Technol IntGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee HK, Kim DS, Won JS, Jin DY, Lee HJ, Lee SG (2016) Effects of thermal and humidity aging on the interfacial adhesion of polyketone fiber reinforced natural rubber composites. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2016:1–8Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shi X, Ma M, Lian C, Zhu D (2014) Investigation of the effects of adhesion promoters on the adhesion properties of rubber/steel cord by a new testing technique. J Appl Polym Sci 131:39460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tonatto MLP, Forte MMC, Amico SC (2017) Compressive-tensile fatigue behavior of cords/rubber composites. Polym Test 61:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wennekes WB, Datta RN, Noordermeer JWM, Elkink F (2008) Fiber adhesion to rubber compounds. Rubb Chem Technol 81:523–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li P, Wu Y, Zhou Y, Zuo Y (2019) Preparation and characterization of resorcinol-dialdehyde starch-formaldehyde copolycondensation resin adhesive. Int J Biol Macromol 127:12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sen AK (2001) Coated textiles: principles and applications. Technomic Publishing Company, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wootton DB (2001) The application of textiles in rubber. Rapra Technology Limited, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Serafinska A, Kaliske M, Zopf C, Graf W (2013) A multi-objective optimization approach with consideration of fuzzy variables applied to structural tire design. Comput Struct 116:7–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li L, Choi Y-J, Boonkerd K, Zhang J, Gao LJ, Zhang ZX, Kim JK (2013) Prediction of the chlorobutyl rubber/natural rubber blend properties using a genetic algorithm and artificial neural network. Rubber Chem Technol 86:190–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dey P, Naskar K, Dash B, Nair S, Unnikrishnan G, Nando GB (2014) Thermally cross-linked and sulphur-cured soft TPVs based on S-EB-S and S-SBR blends. RSC Adv 4:35879–35895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Balachandran M, Bhagawan SS, Muraleekrishnan R (2011) Modeling and optimizing properties of nanoclay–nitrile rubber composites using Box–Behnken design. Rubber Chem Technol 84:455–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Balachandran M, Devanathan S, Muraleekrishnan R, Bhagawan SS (2012) Optimizing properties of nanoclay–nitrile rubber (NBR) composites using face centred central composite design. Mater Des 35:854–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Balachandran M, Stanly P, Mulaleekrishnan R, Bhagawan SS (2010) Modeling NBR-layered silicate nanocomposites: a DOE approach. J Appl Polym Sci 118:3300–3310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shiva M, Atashi H, Hassanpourfard M (2012) Studying the abrasion behavior of rubbery materials with combined design of experiment-artificial neural network. Chin J Polym Sci 30:520–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ahsan Q, Mohamad N, Tiak Chuan S (2015) Mechanical properties of rubber mat compound via two factors modelling using response surface methodology. Appl Mech Mater 761:358–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Derringer GC (1988) Statistical methods in rubber research and development. Rubber Chem Technol 61:377–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tian M, Park H, Row Kyung H (2013) Optimization of synthesis amounts of polymers with two monomers by different methods based on response surface methodology. Adv Polym Technol 33:21405Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sridhar V, Prasad K, Choe S, Kundu PP (2001) Optimization of physical and mechanical properties of rubber compounds by a response surface methodological approach. J Appl Polym Sci 82:997–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sridhar V, Shanmugharaj AM, Kim JK, Tripathy DK (2009) Optimization of carbon black and nanoclay filler loading in chlorobutyl vulcanizates using response surface methodology. Polym Compos 30:691–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kukreja TR, Kumar D, Prasad K, Chauhan RC, Choe S, Kundu PP (2002) Optimisation of physical and mechanical properties of rubber compounds by response surface methodology––two component modelling using vegetable oil and carbon black. Eur Polym J 38:1417–1422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rajan R, Varghese S, Balachandran M, George KE (2016) Response surface methodology: a tool for assessing the role of compounding ingredients in peroxide vulcanization of natural rubber. Rubber Chem Technol 89:211–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Salvatori Pablo E, Sánchez G, Lombardi A, Nicocia E, Bortolato Santiago A, Boschetti Carlos E (2018) Optimization of properties in a rubber compound containing a ternary polymer blend using response surface methodology. J Appl Polym Sci 135:46548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ghasemi I (2010) Evaluating the effect of processing conditions and organoclay content on the properties of styrene–butadiene rubber/organoclay nanocomposites by response surface methodology. Exp Polym Lett 4:62–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Durairaj RB (2005) Resorcinol chemistry, technology and applications. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dick JS (2014) How to improve rubber compounds. Hanser Publishers, GermanyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hewitt N (2007) Compounding precipitated silica in elastomers. William Andrew, USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Research and DevelopmentIran Yasa Tire and Rubber CompanyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations