Adsorption of paraquat from water by insoluble cyclodextrin polymer crosslinked with 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid

  • Jatupol JunthipEmail author
  • Warangkana Promma
  • Somchai Sonsupap
  • Chaichat Boonyanusith
Original Research


An insoluble polymer was elaborated by crosslinking reaction between β-CD (β-cyclodextrin) and BTCA (1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid) and it was firstly applied in adsorption of paraquat (PQ) from water. This insoluble polymer was synthesized at 180 °C for 30 min which displayed 74.1% of reaction yield, 3.80 mmol g− 1 of ion exchange capacity (IEC) and 0.18 mmol g− 1 of β-CD content. Physicochemical properties were evaluated by attenuated total reflection–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method and stereoscopic microscopy. The optimal pH was 8 and the equilibrium time was 120 min. At 30 °C, the adsorption capacity was enhanced (10.8, 19.7, and 25.8 mg g− 1) when the initial concentration of paraquat was increased (25, 50 and 200 mg L− 1, respectively). Adsorption kinetics was described by the pseudo-second-order model and adsorption isotherm was appropriated to the Langmuir model. The negative standard enthalpy change (∆Hº) showed an exothermic process, the positive standard entropy change (∆Sº) displayed an increased disorder and the negative standard Gibbs free energy change (∆Gº) indicated a spontaneous adsorption method. Ultimately, the regeneration efficiency of polymer in methanol was 87.3% after four cycles. This polymer could be used as a potential adsorbent for removal of other cationic pesticides.


Insoluble cyclodextrin polymer 1,2,3,4-Butanetetracarboxylic acid Paraquat Adsorption Water contamination 



The authors would like to thank technical staffs for kindly support to achieve experiments. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


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Copyright information

© Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science and TechnologyNakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat UniversityNakhon RatchasimaThailand
  2. 2.The Petroleum and Petrochemical CollegeChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.School of PhysicsSuranaree University of TechnologyNakhon RatchasimaThailand

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