Gelatin is a natural biological macromolecule derived from the collagen in the connective tissue of the skin, bone and other tissues. It has been widely used in medicine, food and industrial production and other fields for easy molding, excellent compatibility and biodegradability. However, physical and chemical disadvantages impede its further application, seriously. Therefore, modification of the gelatin films becomes more and more important. In this study, the gelatin/nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) composite films were prepared by casting method with 4% glycerol as plasticizer. The effect of NCC on the properties of the composite films was investigated by the characterization of its morphology and mechanical, thermal, and optical properties and water adsorption. The results showed that mechanical, thermal stability and water absorption properties of the gelatin/NCC composite film were obviously improved. The composite films showed the highest tensile strength (13.56 ± 0.25 MPa) when the mass concentration of NCC was 0.6%. Adding NCC to gelatin benefited the thermal stability of composite films. The gelatin/NCC composite film of 0.4% NCC had the highest melting transition temperature (138.9 °C). The composite films exhibited the lower water absorption (271.1%) when mass concentration of NCC was 1.0%. Thus, these results indicated that NCC could affect the properties of gelatin-based composite films, and showed it has potential for application in food packing.
Gelatin film Nanocrystalline cellulose Composite film Modify Properties
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The authors are grateful for the support of the Natural Science Foundation of Qinghai Province, China, Grant No. 2015-ZJ-909.
Revol JF, Godbout L, Gray DG (1998) Solid films of cellulose with chiral nematic order and optically variable properties. J Pulp Pap Sci 24:146–149Google Scholar
Klemm D, Kramer F, Moritz S, Lindstrm T, Ankerfors M, Gray D, Dorris A (2011) Nanocelluloses: a new family of nature-based materials. Angew Chem Int Ed 50:5438–5466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakagaito AN, Yano H (2004) The effect of morphological changes from pulp fiber towards nano-scale fibrillated cellulose on the mechanical properties of high-strength plant fiber based composites. Appl Phys A 78:547–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakagaito AN, Iwamoto S, Yano H (2005) Bacterial cellulose: the ultimate nano-scalar cellulose morphology for the production of high-strength composites. Appl Phys A 80:93–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu L, Fei J-M, Zhan P-F, Li Y-F, Yao J-M (2010) Pectin extraction from mulberry bark and application of pectin-derived nano-cellulose whiskers in silk fibroin composite film. Sci Seric 36:20–24Google Scholar
Millon LE, Wan WK (2006) The polyvinyl alcohol-bacterial cellulose system as a new nanocomposite for biomedical applications. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 79:245–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nogi M, Abe K, Handa K, Nakatsubo F, Ifuku S, Yano H (2006) Property enhancement of optically transparent bionanofiber composites by acetylation. Appl Phys Lett 89:233123(1–3)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nogi M, Ifuku S, Abe K, Handa K, Nakagaito AN, Yano H (2006) Fiber-content dependency of the optical transparency and thermal expansion of bacterial nanofiber reinforced composites. Appl Phys Lett 88:133124(1–3)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bochek AM, Ten’kovtsev AV, Dudkina MM, Lukoshkin VN, Matneeva GN, Sukhanova TE (2004) Nonlinear optically active nanocomposites based on cellulose. Polym Sci Ser B 46:109–112Google Scholar
Dujardin E, Blaseby M, Mann S (2003) Synthesis of mesoporous silica by sol–gel mineralisation of cellulose nanorod nematic suspensions. J Mater Chem 13:696–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Habiba U, Islam MS, Siddique TA, Afifi AM, Ang BC (2016) Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of anionic dyes on chitosan/PVA/Na–titanate/TiO2 composites synthesized by solution casting method. Carbohydr Polym 149:317–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cao X, Dong H, Li CM (2007) New nanocomposite materials reinforced with flax cellulose nanocrystals in waterborne polyurethanes. Biomacromolecules 8:899–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lima MMDS, Borsali R (2004) Rodlike cellulose microcrystals: structure, properties, and applications. Macromol Rapid Commun 25:771–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sehaqui H, Zhou Q, Berglund LA (2011) Nanostructured biocomposites of high toughness-a wood cellulose nanofiber network in ductile hydroxyethylcellulose matrix. Soft Matter 7:7342–7350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barreto PLM, Pires ATN, Soldi V (2003) Thermal degradation of edible films based on milk proteins and gelatin in inert atmosphere. Polym Degrad Stab 79:147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang W, Zhang Y, Ye R, Ni Y (2015) Physical crosslinkings of edible collagen casing. Int J Biol Macromol 81:920–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar