Iranian Polymer Journal

, Volume 23, Issue 7, pp 495–504 | Cite as

The effect of different boundary conditions on crushing behavior of hat-shaped polymer composite energy absorber

  • N. Tavassoli
  • A. Darvizeh
  • M. Darvizeh
  • S. A. R. Sabet
  • H. Ganjgahi
Original Paper


Side-door impact b eams are widely used in car doors to improve the passenger’s safety during the side impact. Fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials have a high specific strength and stiffness and are considered suitable candidate for this application. The aim of this study was to investigate energy-absorbing capacity of hat-shaped structures made from fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials at different boundary conditions. A finite element analysis model was developed using ABAQUS/Explicit code to achieve optimized fiber orientation and stacking sequence. Unidirectional E-glass fiber/polyester resin was used to construct hat-shaped beam energy absorber. Finite element analysis has revealed the optimized fiber orientations of [75/0/0/−75], [−75/0/0/75], [60/−30/30/-60], [−75/−30/75/30], [30/60/−30/−60] for quasi-static loadings, and [60/45/−45/−60], [45/−45/−60/60], [75/60/−60/−75], [−30/30/45/−45], [−75/−60/75/60] for impact loadings. Quasi-static bending as well as pendulum type impact test was carried out on specimens made with fiber orientation adopted from numerical analysis. Quasi-static bending test demonstrated that in fully clamped boundary conditions, composite layup orientation of [−75/0/0/75] showed maximum energy-absorbing capacity, but in other boundary conditions, composite layup orientation of [60/−30/30/−60] had the maximum energy-absorbing capacity. Contrarily, pendulum impact test for similar boundary conditions showed the highest energy absorption happened in fiber orientations of [−30/30/45/−45] and [−75/−60/75/60]. It was postulated that different modes of loading were the reason for this discrepancy.


Crashworthiness Polymer composite Side crash Hat shape 


  1. 1.
    Tavassoli N, Notghi B, Darvizeh A, Darvizeh M (2010) Multi-objective crashworthiness optimization of composite hat-shape energy absorber using GMDH-type neural networks and genetic algorithms. International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lim TS, Lee DG (2002) Mechanically fastened composite side-door impact beams for passenger cars designed for shear-out failure modes. Compos Struct 56:211–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Qian Y, Swanson SR (1990) A comparison of solution techniques for impact response of composite plates. Compos Struct 14:177–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Christoforou AP, Swanson SR (1991) Analysis of impact response in composite plates. Int J Solid Struct 27:161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Swanson SR (1992) Limits of quasi-static solutions in impact of composite structures. Compos Eng 2:261–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kang TJ, Kim C (2000) Impact energy absorption mechanism of largely deformable composites with different reinforcing structures. Fiber Polym 1:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arnaudeau F, Mahé M, Deletombe E, Le Page F (2002) Crashworthiness of aircraft composites structures. International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sohn M-S, Hu X-Z (1995) Comparative study of dynamic and static delamination behavior of carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminates. Composites 26:849–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mamalis AG, Manolakos DE, Demosthenous GA, Ioannidis MB (1996) Energy absorption capability of fiberglass composite square frusta subjected to static and dynamic axial collapse. Thin Walled Struct 25:269–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mamalis AG, Robinson M, Manolakos DE, Demosthenous GA, Ioannidis MB, Carruthers J (1997) Crashworthy capability of composite material structures. Compos Struct 37:109–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Roy PK, Ullas AV, Chaudhary S, Mangla V, Sharma P, Kumar D, Rajagopal C (2013) Effect of SBA-15 on the energy absorption characteristics of epoxy resin for blast mitigation applications. Iran Polym J 22:709–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Saito H, Chirw EC, Inai R, Hamada H (2002) Energy absorption of braiding pultrusion process composite rods. Compos Struct 55:407–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Davoodi MM, Sapuan SM, Yunus R (2008) Conceptual design of a polymer composite automotive bumper energy absorber. Mater Design 29:1447–1452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cheng Z, Pellettiere JA, Crandall JR, Pilkey WD (2009) Optimal occupant kinematics and crash pulse for automobile frontal impact. Shock Vib 16:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mahanta BB, Reddy P, Dutta A, Chakraborty D (2004) Reliable computation of contact force in FRP composite laminates under transverse impact. Shock Vib 11:129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Huang CH, Lee YJ (2004) Static contact crushing of composite laminated shells. Compos Struct 63:211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pickett AK, Lamb AJ, Chaudoye F (2009) Materials characterisation and crash modelling of composite-aluminium honeycomb sandwich material. Int J Crashworthiness 14:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cuartero J, Miravete A, Sanz R (2011) Design and calculation of a railway car composite roof under concrete cube crash. Int J Crashworthiness 16:41–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yang W, Pelegri AA (2011) Numerical evaluation of stiffness and energy absorption of a hybrid unidirectional/random glass fiber composite. J Eng Mater Technol 133:041018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Elgalai AM, Hamouda AMS, Mahdi E, Sahari BS (2005) Energy absorption capabilities of woven roving glass/epoxy composite tubes: effect of tube length. Strength Fract Complex 3:15–24Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Browne AL, Johnson NL, Botkin ME (2007) Composite crash box: roll wrap fabrication and dynamic axial crush performance. In: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Seattle, 11–15 Nov 2007Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Herbst B, Hock D, Meyer SE, Forrest S, Sances A, Kumaresan S (2004) Epoxy reinforcing for rollover safety. In: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Anaheim, 13–19 Nov 2004Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pegoretti A, Cristelli I, Migliaresi C (2008) Experimental optimization of the impact energy absorption of epoxy–carbon laminates through controlled delamination. Compos Sci Technol 68:2653–2662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ochelski S, Gotowicki P (2009) Experimental assessment of energy absorption capability of carbon–epoxy and glass–epoxy composites. Compos Struct 87:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hu DY, Luo M, Yang JL (2010) Experimental study on crushing characteristics of brittle fibre/epoxy hybrid composite tubes. Int J Crashworthiness 15:401–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jajam KC, Tippur HV (2012) Quasi-static and dynamic fracture behavior of particulate polymer composites: a study of nano- vs micro-size filler and loading-rate effects. Compos Part B Eng 43:3467–3481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Song W-D, Ning J-G, Mao X-N, Li J-Q (2013) A constitutive model for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures. Thermal Sci 17:1361–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chen JH, Jiang MQ, Chen Y, Dai LH (2013) Strain rate dependent shear banding behavior of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite. Mater Sci Eng A 576:134–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Taheri-Behrooz F, Shokrieh MM, Yahyapour I (2014) Effect of stacking sequence on failure mode of fiber metal laminates under low-velocity impact. Iran Polym J 23:147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kahane CJ (1999) Evaluation of FMVSS 214 side impact protection dynamic performance requirement. NHTSA Technical Report Number HS 809 004. US Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Tavassoli
    • 1
  • A. Darvizeh
    • 2
  • M. Darvizeh
    • 1
  • S. A. R. Sabet
    • 3
  • H. Ganjgahi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringIslamic Azad University, Parand BranchParandIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringIslamic Azad University, Bandar Anzali BranchBandar AnzaliIran
  3. 3.Iran Polymer and Petrochemical InstituteTehranIran

Personalised recommendations