Loss-of-Control Eating and Obesity Among Children and Adolescents
- 33 Downloads
Purpose of Review
This review summarizes findings on pediatric loss-of-control (LOC) eating and obesity published since 2013 in relation to physiological, socioenvironmental, and psychological factors.
LOC eating and obesity are highly comorbid in youth. Genetic and physiological risk factors are associated with the development of LOC eating. Adverse physiological outcomes of LOC eating include increased risk for overweight and obesity and greater dysfunction in components of metabolic syndrome. Socioenvironmental, psychological, and behavioral factors, such as weight-based teasing, dieting, negative affect, emotion dysregulation, and aspects of cognitive functioning, are consistently related to LOC eating in youth, independent of weight. Prospectively, LOC eating may predict the onset of anxiety disorders, depression, and more severe eating psychopathology later in life. Updates on interventions and future directions are discussed.
LOC eating may be a key symptom to target adverse physiological and psychological outcomes; however, treatments are limited and require further examination.
KeywordsLoss-of-control eating Obesity Overweight Binge eating Pediatric Eating disorders
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Meghan E. Byrne, Sarah LeMay-Russell, and Marian Tanofsky-Kraff declare they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
- 1.•• He J, Cai Z, Fan X. Prevalence of binge and loss of control eating among children and adolescents with overweight and obesity: An exploratory meta-analysis. Int J Eat Disord. 2016;50(2):91–103 A meta-analysis of thirty-six studies estimated the prevalence of loss-of-control eating in youth with overweight and obesity at 31.2%, and the prevalence of objectively large binge eating at 22.2%. PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 2.American Psychiatric Association [APA]. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub; 2013.Google Scholar
- 3.Shomaker LB, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Yanovski JA. Disinhibited eating and body weight in youth. Handbook of behavior, food and nutrition. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 2183–200.Google Scholar
- 4.MacGuire S. Dietary guidelines for Americans, 2010. In: Agriculture USDo, Services USDoHaH, editors. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 2011.Google Scholar
- 5.Byrne ME, Tanofsky-Kraff M. Development of loss of control eating. In: Lumeng JC, Fisher JO, editors. Pediatric food preferences and eating behaviors. United Kingdom: Academic Press; 2018. p. 233–54.Google Scholar
- 6.Steinberg E, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Cohen ML, Elberg J, Freedman RJ, Semega-Janneh M, et al. Comparison of the child and parent forms of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns in the assessment of children’s eating-disordered behaviors. Int J Eat Disord. 2004;36(2):183–94.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 7.Fairburn CG, Cooper Z. The eating disorder examination (12th edition). In: Fairburn CG, Wilson GT, editors. Binge eating: nature, assessment, and treatment. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press; 1993. p. 317–60.Google Scholar
- 17.Miller R, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Shomaker LB, Field SE, Hannallah L, Reina SA, et al. Serum leptin and loss of control eating in children and adolescents. Int J Obes. 2014;38(3):397–403.Google Scholar
- 22.• Goldschmidt AB, Wall MM, Zhang J, Loth KA, Neumark-Sztainer D. Overeating and binge eating in emerging adulthood: 10-year stability and risk factors. Dev Psychol. 2016;52(3):475 A population-based sample of youth tended to remit overeating behaviors by 5-year follow-up. For female youth, depressive symptoms, body satisfaction, and self-esteem were prospective risk factors for subsequent development of binge eating behaviors. PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.O’Connor SM, Beam CR, Luo X, Cohen LA, VanHuysse JL, Emery RE, et al. Genetic and environmental associations between body dissatisfaction, weight preoccupation, and binge eating: evidence for a common factor with differential loadings across symptom type. Int J Eat Disord. 2017;50(2):157–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 30.Byrne ME, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Kelly NR, Grammer AC, Jaramillo M, Mi SJ, et al. Pediatric loss-of-control eating and anxiety in relation to components of metabolic syndrome. J Pediatr Psychol. 2018;ePub ahead of print:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsy077.
- 32.Tanofsky-Kraff M, Shomaker LB, Stern EA, Miller R, Sebring N, DellaValle D, et al. Children’s binge eating and development of metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes. 2012;36(7):956–62.Google Scholar
- 34.• Vannucci A, Nelson EE, Bongiorno DM, Pine DS, Yanovski JA, Tanofsky-Kraff M. Behavioral and neurodevelopmental precursors to binge-type eating disorders: support for the role of negative valence systems. Psychol Med. 2015;45(14):2921–36 This review examined publications within the constructs of the Negative Valence System domain in order to elucidate early risk factors for binge-type eating disorders among youth. Findings highlight the role of altered corticolimbic functioning, neuroendocrine dysregulation, and self-reported negative affect as possible risk factors for the development of LOC eating among youth. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 35.English L, Masterson T, Fearnbach S, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Fisher J, Wilson S, et al. Increased brain and behavioural susceptibility to portion size in children with loss of control eating. Pediatr Obes. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12436.
- 36.Goldschmidt AB, Dickstein DP, MacNamara AE, Phan KL, O’Brien S, Le Grange D, et al. A pilot study of neural correlates of loss of control eating in children with overweight/obesity: probing intermittent access to food as a means of eliciting disinhibited eating. J Pediatr Psychol. 2018;43:846–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 40.Adam TC, Epel E. Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiological Behavior. 2007;91(4):449–58.Google Scholar
- 42.Tetzlaff A, Hilbert A. The role of the family in childhood and adolescent binge eating. A systematic review. Appetite. 2014;76:208.Google Scholar
- 43.Dakanalis A, Carrà G, Calogero R, Fida R, Clerici M, Zanetti MA, et al. The developmental effects of media-ideal internalization and self-objectification processes on adolescents’ negative body-feelings, dietary restraint, and binge eating. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015;24(8):997–1010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 46.Shank LM, Crosby RD, Grammer AC, Shomaker LB, Vannucci A, Burke NL, et al. Examination of the interpersonal model of loss of control eating in the laboratory. Compr Psychiatry. 2017;76:36–44.Google Scholar
- 51.Stojek M, Shank LM, Vannucci A, Bongiorno DM, Nelson EE, Waters AJ, et al. A systematic review of attentional biases in disorders involving binge eating. Appetite. 2018;123:367–89.Google Scholar
- 55.Rhee KE, Kessl S, Manzano MA, Strong DR, Boutelle KN. Cluster randomized control trial promoting child self-regulation around energy-dense food. Appetite. 2019;133:156–65.Google Scholar
- 59.Micali N, Solmi F, Horton NJ, Crosby RD, Eddy KT, Calzo JP, et al. Adolescent eating disorders predict psychiatric, high-risk behaviors and weight outcomes in young adulthood. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015;54(8):652–9. e1.Google Scholar
- 61.Stojek M, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Shomaker LB, Kelly NR, Thompson KA, Mehari RD, et al. Associations of adolescent emotional and loss of control eating with 1-year changes in disordered eating, weight, and adiposity. Int J Eat Disord. 2017;50(5):551–60.Google Scholar
- 64.Tanofsky-Kraff M, Crosby RD, Vannucci A, Kozlosky M, Shomaker LB, Brady SM, et al. Effect of adapted interpersonal psychotherapy versus health education on mood and eating in the laboratory among adolescent girls with loss of control eating. Int J Eat Disord. 2016;49(5):490–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 65.•• Tanofsky-Kraff M, Shomaker LB, Wilfley DE, Young JF, Sbrocco T, Stephens M, et al. Excess weight gain prevention in adolescents: three-year outcome following a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2017;85(3):218–27 Three-year follow-up analysis of a randomized control trial comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) to health education for the prevention of weight gain among girls with overweight or obesity revealed, among participants with high social-adjustment problems or trait anxiety, IPT was associated with improvements in BMI z . This study suggests that IPT may be most effective for individuals with social-adjustment problems and/or anxiety. PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 67.Shomaker LB, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Matherne CE, Mehari RD, Olsen CH, Marwitz SE, et al. A randomized, comparative pilot trial of family-based interpersonal psychotherapy for reducing psychosocial symptoms, disordered-eating, and excess weight gain in at-risk preadolescents with loss-of-control-eating. Int J Eat Disord. 2017;50(9):1084–94.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar