Current Obesity Reports

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 289–293 | Cite as

Towards an Individualized Nutrition Treatment: Role of the Gastrointestinal Microbiome in the Interplay Between Diet and Obesity

  • Solveig A. Adalsteinsdottir
  • Ola K. Magnusdottir
  • Thorhallur I. Halldorsson
  • Bryndis E. Birgisdottir
Obesity Treatment (CM Apovian, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Obesity Treatment


Purpose of Review

Dietary treatments for obesity have relatively low long-term success. Recent studies have identified the gastrointestinal microbiome as a factor of high relevance. The current knowledge on the interplay between diet, obesity, and the gastrointestinal microbiome and the potential for individualized dietary treatment will be discussed.

Recent Findings

Studies indicate that each individual digests and metabolizes identical food substances differently depending on their gastrointestinal microbiome composition. Factors related to this crosstalk may improve our understanding of weight homeostasis and treatment of obesity.


Long-time dietary intake is the key in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiome which seems to be an important factor for energy balance, resulting in emerging opportunities for increasingly varied obesity treatment. Compliance to dietary treatment is critical for long-term success as enduring changes in gastrointestinal microbiome seem to slow over time. More research is urgently needed to investigate this missing link in our understanding of obesity.


Gastrointestinal microbiome Obesity Dysbiosis Diet Food 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Solveig A. Adalsteinsdottir, Ola K. Magnusdottir, Thorhallur I. Halldorsson, and Bryndis E. Birgisdottir declare they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Solveig A. Adalsteinsdottir
    • 1
  • Ola K. Magnusdottir
    • 1
  • Thorhallur I. Halldorsson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bryndis E. Birgisdottir
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit for Nutrition Research, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Landspitali University HospitalUniversity of IcelandReykjavikIceland
  2. 2.Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology ResearchStatens Serum InstitutCopenhagenDenmark

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