Towards an Individualized Nutrition Treatment: Role of the Gastrointestinal Microbiome in the Interplay Between Diet and Obesity
Purpose of Review
Dietary treatments for obesity have relatively low long-term success. Recent studies have identified the gastrointestinal microbiome as a factor of high relevance. The current knowledge on the interplay between diet, obesity, and the gastrointestinal microbiome and the potential for individualized dietary treatment will be discussed.
Studies indicate that each individual digests and metabolizes identical food substances differently depending on their gastrointestinal microbiome composition. Factors related to this crosstalk may improve our understanding of weight homeostasis and treatment of obesity.
Long-time dietary intake is the key in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiome which seems to be an important factor for energy balance, resulting in emerging opportunities for increasingly varied obesity treatment. Compliance to dietary treatment is critical for long-term success as enduring changes in gastrointestinal microbiome seem to slow over time. More research is urgently needed to investigate this missing link in our understanding of obesity.
KeywordsGastrointestinal microbiome Obesity Dysbiosis Diet Food
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Solveig A. Adalsteinsdottir, Ola K. Magnusdottir, Thorhallur I. Halldorsson, and Bryndis E. Birgisdottir declare they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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