Spontaneous Physical Activity Defends Against Obesity

  • Catherine M. Kotz
  • Claudio E. Perez-Leighton
  • Jennifer A. Teske
  • Charles J. Billington
Metabolism (CJ Billington, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Metabolism

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Spontaneous physical activity (SPA) is a physical activity not motivated by a rewarding goal, such as that associated with food-seeking or wheel-running behavior. SPA is often thought of as only “fidgeting,” but that is a mischaracterization, since fidgety behavior can be linked to stereotypies in neurodegenerative disease and other movement disorders. Instead, SPA should be thought of as all physical activity behavior that emanates from an unconscious drive for movement.

Recent Findings

An example of this may be restless behavior, which can include fidgeting and gesticulating, frequent sit-to-stand movement, and more time spent standing and moving. All physical activity burns calories, and as such, SPA could be manipulated as a means to burn calories, and defend against weight gain and reduce excess adiposity.

Summary

In this review, we discuss human and animal literature on the use of SPA in reducing weight gain, the neuromodulators that could be targeted to this end, and future directions in this field.

Keywords

Spontaneous physical activity Non-exercise energy expenditure Locomotion Exercise Obesity Food intake Eating behavior Brain Central nervous system Orexin Dynorphin DREADD Optogenetics Human Animal 

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catherine M. Kotz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Claudio E. Perez-Leighton
    • 3
  • Jennifer A. Teske
    • 4
  • Charles J. Billington
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Integrative Biology and PhysiologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.GRECC, Minneapolis VA Health Care System, GRECCMinneapolisUSA
  3. 3.Facultad de MedicinaUniversidad Andres BelloSantiagoChile
  4. 4.Department of Nutritional SciencesUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  5. 5.Department of MedicineUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  6. 6.Minneapolis VA Health Care SystemMinneapolisUSA

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