Current Obesity Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 344–360 | Cite as

The Impact of Obesity in the Workplace: a Review of Contributing Factors, Consequences and Potential Solutions

  • Nipun Shrestha
  • Zeljko Pedisic
  • Sarah Neil-Sztramko
  • Katriina T. Kukkonen-Harjula
  • Veerle Hermans
The Obesity Epidemic: Causes and Consequences (A Peeters and A Cameron, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on The Obesity Epidemic: Causes and Consequences


This narrative review summarized findings from previous reviews and the most recently published studies, regarding the following: (1) the association between two occupational risk factors—shift work and sedentary work—and obesity, (2) the effects of obesity on workplace productivity and (3) the effectiveness of workplace interventions aimed at preventing or reducing obesity. Despite some inconsistencies in findings, there is convincing evidence that shift work increases the risk of obesity, while most studies did not show a significant association between sedentary work and obesity. Overweight and obesity were found to be associated with absenteeism, disability pension and overall work impairment, whilst evidence of their relationship with presenteeism, unemployment and early retirement was not consistent. Due to the vast heterogeneity in the types of workplace-based interventions to prevent or treat obesity, no sound conclusions can as yet be drawn about their overall effectiveness and best practice recommendations for their implementation.


Obesity Work productivity Sedentary work Shift work Indirect costs Absenteeism Presenteeism 


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

  1. 1.
    Jarolimova J, Tagoni J, Stern TA. Obesity: its epidemiology, comorbidities, and management. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2013;15(5):PCC.12f01475.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic, 2000, WHO Geneva WHO technical report series 894, 253 p.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants. Lancet. 2016;387:1377–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aronne LJ, Nelinson DS, Lillo JL. Obesity as a disease state: a new paradigm for diagnosis and treatment. Clin Cornerstone. 2009;9(4):9–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schulte PA, Wagner GR, Ostry A, Blanciforti LA, Cutlip RG, Krajnak KM, et al. Work, obesity and occupational safety and health. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:428–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Victorian Health Promotion Foundation. Reducing prolonged sitting in the workplace. An evidence review: summary report. 2012.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Borak J. Obesity and the workplace. Occup Med. 2011;61(4):220–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sanchez Bustillos A, Vargas III KG, Gomero-Cuadra R. Work productivity among adults with varied Body Mass Index: results from a Canadian population-based survey. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2015;5:191–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McMenamin TM. A time to work: recent trends in shift work and flexible schedules. Monthly Labor Review. 2007. Available from:
  10. 10.
    Harrington JM. Health effects of shift work and extended hours of work. Occup Environ Med. 2001;58:68–72.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Straif K, Baan R, Grosse Y, Secretan B, El GF, Bouvard V, et al. Carcinogenicity of shift-work, painting, and fire-fighting. Lancet Oncol. 2007;8:1065–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vyas MV, Garg A, Iansavichus A, Costella J. Shift work and vascular events: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2012;345:e4800.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lennernas M, Andersson I. Food-based classification of eating episodes (FBCE). Appetite. 1999;32(1):53–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    van Drongelen A, Boot CRL, Merkus SL, Smid T, van der Beek AJ. The effects of shift work on body weight change—a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2011;37(4):263–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.•
    Amani R, Gill T. Shiftworking, nutrition and obesity: implications for workforce health—a systematic review. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22:698–708. Systematically reviewed the association between shiftwork and obesity; included both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.Google Scholar
  16. 16.•
    Proper KI, van de Langenberg D, Rodenburg W, Vermeulen RC, van der Beek AJ, van Steeg H, et al. The relationship between shift work and metabolic risk factors: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Am J Prev Med. 2016;50:e147–57. Systematically summarized the available evidence of longitudinal studies linking shift work with metabolic risk factors.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barbadoro P, Santarelli L, Croce N, Bracci M, Vincitorio D, Prospero E, et al. Rotating shift-work as an independent risk factor for overweight Italian workers: a cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(5):e63289.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bekkers MB, Koppes LJ, Rodenburg W, Steeg HV, Proper KI. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. J Occup Environ Med. 2015;57(4):e37–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buchvold HV, Pallesen S, Øyane NM, Bjorvatn B. Associations between night work and BMI, alcohol, smoking, caffeine and exercise--a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2015;12(15):1112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gholami Fesharaki M, Kazemnejad A, Zayeri F, Rowzati M, Akbari H. Relationship between shift work and obesity; a retrospective cohort study. J Mil Med. 2012;14(2):93–7.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Griep RH, Bastos LS, Fonseca Mde J, Silva-Costa A, Portela LF, Toivanen S, et al. Years worked at night and body mass index among registered nurses from eighteen public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014;14:603.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Huth JJ, Eliades A, Handwork C, Englehart JL, Messenger J. Shift worked, quality of sleep, and elevated body mass index in pediatric nurses. J Pediatr Nurs. 2013;28(6):e64–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kim M, Son K, Park H, Choi D, Yoon C, Lee H, et al. Association between shift work and obesity among female nurses: Korean Nurses’ Survey. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:1204.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ko SB. Night shift work, sleep quality, and obesity. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2013;3(2):110–6.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Macagnan J, Pattussi MP, Canuto R, Henn RL, Fassa AG, Olinto MT. Impact of nightshift work on overweight and abdominal obesity among workers of a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil. Chronobiol Int. 2012;29(30):336–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marqueze E, Lemos L, Soares N, Lorenzi-Filho G, Moreno C. Weight gain in relation to night work among nurses. Work. 2012;41:2043–8.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Neil-Sztramko SE, Gotay CC, Demers PA, Campbell KL. Physical activity, physical fitness, and body composition of canadian shift workers: data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 and 2. J Occup Environ Med. 2016;58(1):94–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Peplonska B, Bukowska A, Sobala W. Association of rotating night shift work with BMI and abdominal obesity among nurses and midwives. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(7):e0133761.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roos E, Lallukka T, Rahkonen O, Lahelma E, Laaksonen M. Working conditions and major weight gain—a prospective cohort study. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2013;68(3):166–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Smith P, Fritschi L, Reid A, Mustard C. The relationship between shift work and body mass index among Canadian nurses. Appl Nurs Res. 2013;26:24–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Son M, Jin Ye B, Kim J, Kang S, Jung KY. Association between shift work and obesity according to body fat percentage in Korean wage workers: data from the fourth and the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2008–2011). Ann Occup Environ Med. 2015;27:32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tada Y, Kawano Y, Maeda I, Yoshizaki T, Sunami A, Yokoyama Y, et al. Association of body mass index with lifestyle and rotating shift work in Japanese female nurses. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(12):2489–93.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yoon CG, Kang MY, Bae KJ, Yoon JH. Do working hours and type of work affect obesity in South Korean female workers? Analysis of the Korean Community Health Survey. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2016;25(2):173–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Puttonen S, Härmä M, Hublin C. Shift work and cardiovascular disease - pathways from circadian stress to morbidity. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2010;36:96–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Antunes LC, Levandovski R, Dantas G, Caumo W, Hidalgo MP. Obesity and shift work: chronobiological aspects. Nutr Res Rev. 2010;23:155–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Heath G, Roach GD, Dorrian J, Ferguson SA, Darwent D, Sargent C. The effect of sleep restriction on snacking behavior during a week of simulated shiftwork. Accid Anal Prev. 2012;45(Suppl):62–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nedeltcheva AV, Kilkus JM, Imperial J, Kasza K, Schoeller DA, Penev PD. Sleep curtailment is accompanied by increased intake of calories from snacks. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(1):126–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Burch JB, Tom J, Zhai Y, Criswell L, Leo E, Ogoussan K. Shiftwork impacts and adaptation among health care workers. Occup Med (Lond). 2009;59(3):159–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vandelanotte C, Short C, Rockloff M, Di Millia L, Ronan K, Happell B, et al. How do different occupational factors influence total, occupational, and leisure-time physical activity? J Phys Act Health. 2015;12(2):200–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    de Rezende LFM, de Sá TH, Mielke GI, Viscondi JYK, Rey-López JP, Garcia LMT. All-cause mortality attributable to sitting time: analysis of 54 countries worldwide. Am J Prev Med. 2016.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ng SW, Popkin BM. Time use and physical activity: a shift away from movement across the globe. Obes Rev. 2012;13(8):659–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Church TS, Thomas DM, Tudor-Locke C, Katzmarzyk PT, Earnest CP, Rodarte RQ, et al. Trends over 5 decades in U.S. occupation-related physical activity and their associations with obesity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(5):e19657.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.•
    van Uffelen JGZ, Wong J, Chau JY, van der Ploeg HP, Riphagen I, Gilson ND, et al. Occupational sitting and health risks: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2010;39(4):379–88. Systematically reviewed the association between occupational sitting and health risks.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Al-Habsi A, Kilani H. Lifestyles of adult Omani women: cross-sectional study on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2015;15(2):e257–65.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bennie JA, Pedisic Z, Timperio A, Crawford D, Dunstan D, Bauman A, et al. Total and domain-specific sitting time among employees in desk-based work settings in Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2015;39(3):237–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Carr LJ, Swift M, Ferrer A, Benzo R. Cross-sectional examination of long-term access to sit-stand desks in a professional office setting. Am J Prev Med. 2016;50(1):96–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chau JY, van der Ploeg HP, Merom D, Chey T, Bauman AE. Cross-sectional associations between occupational and leisure-time sitting, physical activity and obesity in working adults. Prev Med. 2012;54(3–4):195–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Choi B, Schnall PL, Yang H, Dobson M, Landsbergis P, Israel L, et al. Sedentary work, low physical job demand, and obesity in US workers. Am J Ind Med. 2010;53(11):1088–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Choi B, Dobson M, Schnall P, Garcia-Rivas J. 24-hour work shifts, sedentary work, and obesity in male firefighters. Am J Ind Med. 2016;59:486–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    De Cocker K, Duncan MJ, Short C, van Uffelen JG, Vandelanotte C. Understanding occupational sitting: prevalence, correlates and moderating effects in Australian employees. Prev Med. 2014;67:288–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dobson M, Choi B, Schnall PL, Wigger E, Garcia-Rivas J, Israel L, et al. Exploring occupational and health behavioral causes of firefighter obesity: a qualitative study. Am J Ind Med. 2013;56(7):776–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Eriksen D, Rosthøj S, Burr H, Holtermann A. Sedentary work – associations between five-year changes in occupational sitting time and body mass index. Prev Med. 2015;73:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Garcia LM, da Silva KS, Del Duca GF, da Costa FF, Nahas MV, et al. Sedentary behaviors, leisure-time physical inactivity, and chronic diseases in Brazilian workers: a cross sectional study. J Phys Act Health. 2014;11:1622–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hadgraft NT, Lynch BM, Clark BK, Healy GN, Owen N, Dunstan DW. Excessive sitting at work and at home: correlates of occupational sitting and TV viewing time in working adults. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:899. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2243-y.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Honda T, Chen S, Kishimoto H, Narazaki K, Kumagai S. Identifying associations between sedentary time and cardio-metabolic risk factors in working adults using objective and subjective measures: a cross-sectional analysis. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1307. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1307.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kazi A, Duncan M, Clemes S, Haslam C. A survey of sitting time among UK employees. Occup Med (Lond). 2014;64(7):497–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kim JY, Park YH, En A. The relationship between lifestyles and obesity of office workers in Korea. Int J Control Autom Syst. 2015;8(10):349–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lin TC, Courtney TK, Lombardi DA, Verma SK. Association between sedentary work and BMI in a U.S. national longitudinal survey. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(6):e117–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nicholas JA, Lo Siou G, Lynch BM, Robson PJ, Friedenreich CM, Csizmadi I. Leisure-time physical activity does not attenuate the association between occupational sedentary behavior and obesity: Results from Alberta’s tomorrow project. J Phys Act Health. 2015;12(12):1589–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Picavet HS, Pas LW, van Oostrom SH, van der Ploeg HP, Verschuren WM, Proper KI. The relation between occupational sitting and mental, cardiometabolic, and musculoskeletal health over a period of 15 years - The Doetinchem Cohort Study. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(1).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pulsford RM, Stamatakis E, Britton AR, Brunner EJ, Hillsdon MM. Sitting behavior and obesity: evidence from the Whitehall II study. Am J Prev Med. 2013;44(2):132–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ryde GC, Brown HE, Peeters GM, Gilson ND, Brown WJ. Desk-based occupational sitting patterns: weight-related health outcomes. Am J Prev Med. 2013;45(4):448–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Saidj M, Jørgensen T, Jacobsen RK, Linneberg A, Aadahl M. Separate and joint associations of occupational and leisure-time sitting with cardio-metabolic risk factors in working adults: a cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(8):e70213. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070213.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Yang L, Hipp JA, Marx CM, Brownson RC. Occupational sitting and weight status in a diverse sample of employees in Midwest metropolitan cities, 2012–2013. Prev Chronic Dis. 2014;11:E203. doi:10.5888/pcd11.140286.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pedisic Z, Grunseit A, Ding, Chau JY, Banks E, Stamatakis E, et al. High sitting time or obesity: which came first? Bidirectional association in a longitudinal study of 31,787 Australian adults. Obesity. 2014;22(10):2126–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pandalai SP, Schulte PA, Miller DB. Conceptual heuristic models of the interrelationships between obesity and the occupational environment. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2013;39(3):221–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Speck RM, Schmitz KH. Energy expenditure comparison: a pilot study of standing instead of sitting at work for obesity prevention. Prev Med. 2011;52:283–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Júdice PB, Hamilton MT, Sardinha LB, Zderic TW, Silva AM. What is the metabolic and energy cost of sitting, standing and sit/stand transitions? Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016;116:263–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pedisic Z. Measurement issues and poor adjustments for physical activity and sleep undermine sedentary behaviour research - the focus should shift to the balance between sleep, sedentary behaviour, standing and activity. Kinesiology. 2014;46:135–46.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lehnert T, Sonntag D, Konnopka A, Riedel-Heller S, König HH. Economic costs of overweight and obesity. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;27:105–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.•
    Dee A, Kearns K, O’Neill C, Sharp L, Staines A, O’Dwyer V, et al. The direct and indirect costs of both overweight and obesity: a systematic review. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:242. Systematically examined direct costs and indirect (lost productivity) costs of both overweight and obesity to provide comparable estimates across nations.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Neovius K, Johansson K, Rössner S, Neovius M. Disability pension, employment and obesity status: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2008;9:572–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Neovius K, Johansson K, Kark M, Neovius M. Obesity status and sick leave: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2009;10:17–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Robroek SJ, Reeuwijk KG, Hillier FC, Bambra CL, van Rijn RM, Burdorf A. The contribution of overweight, obesity, and lack of physical activity to exit from paid employment: a meta-analysis. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2013;39:233–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Schmier JK, Jones ML, Halpern MT. Cost of obesity in the workplace. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2006;32(1):5–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Trogdon JG, Finkelstein EA, Hylands T, Dellea PS, Kamal-Bahl SJ. Indirect costs of obesity: a review of the current literature. Obes Rev. 2008;9(5):489–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    van Duijvenbode DC, Hoozemans MJ, van Poppel MN, Proper KI. The relationship between overweight and obesity, and sick leave: a systematic review. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33:807–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Finkelstein EA, DiBonaventura M, Burgess SM, Hale BC. The costs of obesity in the workplace. J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52:971–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gupta S, Richard L, Forsythe A. The humanistic and economic burden associated with increasing body mass index in the EU5. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2015;8:327–38.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ropponen A, Silventoinen K, Koskenvuo M, Svedberg P, Kaprio J. Stability and change of body mass index as a predictor of disability pension. Scand J Public Health. 2016;44:369–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Malik SH, Blake H, Suggs LS. A systematic review of workplace health promotion interventions for increasing physical activity. Br J Health Psychol. 2014;19(1):149–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shrestha N, Kukkonen-Harjula KT, Verbeek JH, Ijaz S, Hermans V, Bhaumik S. Workplace interventions for reducing sitting at work. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;3:CD010912. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010912.pub3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Danquah IH, Kloster S, Holtermann A, Aadahl M, Bauman A, Ersbøll AK, Tolstrup JS. Take a Stand!—a multi-component intervention aimed at reducing sitting time among office workers—a cluster randomized trial. Int J Epidemiol. 2016.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ausburn TF, LaCoursiere S, Crouter SE, McKay T. Review of worksite weight management programs. Workplace Health Saf. 2014;62(3):122–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Anderson LM, Quinn TA, Glanz K, Ramirez G, Kahwati LC, Johnson DB, et al. The effectiveness of worksite nutrition and physical activity interventions for controlling employee overweight and obesity: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2009;37(4):340–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bilger M, Finkelstein EA, Kruger E, Tate DF, Linnan LA. The effect of weight loss on health, productivity, and medical expenditures among overweight employees. Med Care. 2013;51(6):471–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Harden SM, You W, Almeida FA, Hill JL, Linnan LA, Allen KC, et al. Does successful weight loss in an internet-based worksite weight loss program improve employee presenteeism and absenteeism? Health Educ Behav. 2015;42(6):769–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Morgan PJ, Collins CE, Plotnikoff RC, Cook AT, Berthon B, Mitchell S, et al. The impact of a workplace-based weight loss program on work-related outcomes in overweight male shift workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2012;54(2):122–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Meenan RT, Vogt TM, Williams AE, Stevens VJ, Albright CL, Nigg C. Economic evaluation of a worksite obesity prevention and intervention trial among hotel workers in Hawaii. J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52 Suppl 1:S8–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gussenhoven AH, van Wier MF, Bosmans JE, Dekkers JC, van Mechelen W. Cost-effectiveness of a distance lifestyle counselling programme among overweight employees from a company perspective, ALIFE@Work: a randomized controlled trial. Work. 2013;46(3):337–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Quintiliani L, Sattelmair J, Sorensen G. The workplace as a setting for interventions to improve diet and promote physical activity. A background paper prepared for the WHO/WEF Joint Event on Preventing Noncommunicable Diseases in the Workplace. Dalian: World Health Organization; 2007.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Cerin E, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, et al. Breaks in sedentary time: beneficial associations with metabolic risk. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:661–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.•
    Weerasekara YK, Roberts SB, Kahn MA, LaVertu AE, Hoffman B, Das SK. Effectiveness of workplace weight management interventions: a systematic review. Curr Obes Rep. 2016;5(2):298–306. Systematically reviewed randomized trials of workplace weight management interventions, including trials with dietary, physical activity, environmental, behavioral, and incentive-based components.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Guo X, Coberley C, Pope JE, Wells A. The Value of a well-being improvement strategy: longitudinal success across subjective and objective measures observed in a firm adopting a consumer-driven health plan. J Occup Environ Med. 2015;57(10):1055–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Popkin BM, Kim S, Rusev ER, Du S, Zizza C. Measuring the full economic costs of diet, physical activity and obesity-related chronic diseases. Obes Rev. 2006;7:271–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Runge CF. Economic consequences of the obese. Diabetes. 2007;56(11):2668–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nipun Shrestha
    • 1
  • Zeljko Pedisic
    • 1
  • Sarah Neil-Sztramko
    • 2
  • Katriina T. Kukkonen-Harjula
    • 3
  • Veerle Hermans
    • 4
  1. 1.Active Living & Public Health Group, Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living (ISEAL)Victoria UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Health SciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Rehabilitation, South Karelia Social and Health Care District EksoteLappeenrantaFinland
  4. 4.Faculty of Psychology &Educational Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & PharmacyVrije Universiteit BrusselBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations