Current Obesity Reports

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 91–100 | Cite as

Delayed Timing of Eating: Impact on Weight and Metabolism

  • Kelly C. Allison
  • Namni Goel
  • Rexford S. Ahima
Psychological Issues (M Hetherington and V Drapeau, Section Editors)


Animal studies of delayed eating have provided useful information regarding the potential relationship between nighttime eating and increased weight and metabolic dysregulation, which occur in the absence of increased locomotion or increased caloric intake. We first review recent studies detailing these relationships and possible mechanisms in rodents. We then examine human data showing that sleep restriction leads to increased energy intake and weight gain, followed by a review of the human phenotype of delayed eating, night eating syndrome, and its relation to weight and metabolism. Finally, we examine human experimental studies of delayed eating and discuss preliminary data that show slight weight gain, dysfunction in energy expenditure, and abnormalities in the circadian rhythms of appetitive, stress, and sleep hormones. Well-controlled, longer-term experimental studies in humans are warranted to test the effect of delayed eating without sleep restriction to clarify whether limiting or eliminating nighttime eating could lead to weight loss and significantly improve related disorders, such as diabetes and heart disease, over time.


Sleep deprivation Circadian Delayed eating Energy intake Weight Energy expenditure Chronotype Leptin Ghrelin Night eating syndrome Macronutrients Metabolism 



N. Goel was supported in writing this review by the Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research Award No. N00014-11-1-0361. R.S. Ahima was supported by National Institutes of Health grant P01-DK-049210.

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Kelly C. Allison has received honoraria and travel expenses covered from Pfizer Pharmaceuticals. She also will receive future royalties from Guilford Publishers for her book Night Eating Syndrome: Research, Assessment, and Treatment.

Namni Goel declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Rexford S. Ahima declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

  1. 1.
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010. JAMA. 2012;307:491–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bray GA. Risks of obesity. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2003;32:787–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wing RR, Lang W, Wadden TA, Safford M, Knowler WC, Bertoni AG, et al. Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diab Care. 2011;34:1481–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: the evidence report: National Institutes of Health. Obes Res. 1998;6 Suppl 2:51S–209S. Erratum, Obes Res 1998;6:464.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bechtold DA, Loudon AS. Hypothalamic clocks and rhythms in feeding behaviour. Trends Neurosci. 2013;36:74–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Drapeau V, Gallant AR. Homeostatic and circadian control of food intake: clinical strategies to prevent overconsumption. Curr Obes Rep. 2013;2:93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.•
    Maury E, Ramsey KM, Bass J. Circadian rhythms and metabolic syndrome: from experimental genetics to human disease. Circ Res. 2010;106:447–62. This review highlights translational studies that describe how changes in the internal clock system and sleep, represent risk factors for disease, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. The authors describe how such research has provided new opportunities for mechanism-based therapeutics.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Satoh Y, Kawai H, Kudo N, Kawashima Y, Mitsumoto A. Time-restricted feeding entrains daily rhythms of energy metabolism in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;290:R1276–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Verwey M, Amir S. Food-entrainable circadian oscillators in the brain. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;30:1650–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Escobar C, Cailotto C, Angeles-Castellanos M, Delgado RS, Buijs RM. Peripheral oscillators: the driving force for food-anticipatory activity. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;30:1665–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carneiro BT, Araujo JF. The food-entrainable oscillator: a network of interconnected brain structures entrained by humoral signals? Chronobiol Int. 2009;26:1273–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lamia KA, Storch KF, Weitz CJ. Physiological significance of a peripheral tissue circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15172–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hirao A, Nagahama H, Tsuboi T, Hirao M, Tahara Y, Shibata S. Combination of starvation interval and food volume determines the phase of liver circadian rhythm in Per2::Luc knock-in mice under two meals per day feeding. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G1045–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vollmers C, Gill S, DiTacchio L, Pulivarthy SR, Le HD, Panda S. Time of feeding and the intrinsic circadian clock drive rhythms in hepatic gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21453–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Turek FW, Joshu C, Kohsaka A, Lin E, Ivanova G, McDearmon E. Obesity and metabolic syndrome in circadian Clock mutant mice. Science. 2005;308:1043–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ahima RS, Prabakaran D, Flier JS. Postnatal leptin surge and regulation of circadian rhythm of leptin by feeding. Implications for energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine function. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:1020–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arble DM, Bass J, Laposky AD, Vitaterna MH, Turek FW. Circadian timing of food intake contributes to weight gain. Obesity. 2009;17:2100–12.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hatori M, Vollmers C, Zarrinpar A, DiTacchio L, Bushong EA, Gill S, et al. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet. Cell Metab. 2012;15:848–60.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Paschos GK, Ibrahim S, Song WL, Kunieda T, Grant G, Reyes TM, et al. Obesity in mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of clock component Arntl. Nat Med. 2012;18:1768–77.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fonken LK, Workman JL, Walton JC, Weil ZM, Morris JS, Haim A, et al. Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18664–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sujino M, Furukawa K, Koinuma S, Fujioka A, Nagano M, Iigo M, et al. Differential entrainment of peripheral clocks in the rat by glucocorticoid and feeding. Endocrinol. 2012;153:2277–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang L, Abraham D, Lin ST, Oster H, Eichele G, Fu YH, et al. PKCγ participates in food entrainment by regulating BMAL1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20679–84.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wiater MF, Li AJ, Dinh TT, Jansen HT, Ritter S. Leptin-sensitive neurons in the arcuate nucleus integrate activity and temperature circadian rhythms and anticipatory responses to food restriction. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013;305:R949-60.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Åkerstedt T, Wright KP. Sleep loss and fatigue in shift work and shift work disorder. Sleep Med Clin. 2009;4:257–71.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wright Jr KP, Bogan RK, Wyatt JK. Shift work and the assessment and management of shift work disorder (SWD). Sleep Med Rev. 2013;17:41–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Scheer FA, Hilton MF, Mantzoros CS, Shea SA. Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4453–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Van Cauter E, Spiegel K, Tasali E, Leproult R. Metabolic consequences of sleep and sleep loss. Sleep Med. 2008;9 Suppl 1:S23–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Van Cauter E, Knutson KL. Sleep and the epidemic of obesity in children and adults. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;159 Suppl 1:S59–66.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Spiegel K, Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function. Lancet. 1999;354:1435–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nedeltcheva AV, Kilkus JM, Imperial J, Schoeller DA, Penev PD. Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to reduce adiposity. Ann Intern Med. 2010;153:435–41.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Di Milia L, Vandelanotte C, Duncan MJ. The association between short sleep and obesity after controlling for demographic, lifestyle, work and health related factors. Sleep Med. 2013;14:319–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hanlon EC, Van Cauter E. Quantification of sleep behavior and of its impact on the cross-talk between the brain and peripheral metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108 Suppl 3:15609–16.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chaput JP, McNeil J, Després JP, Bouchard C, Tremblay A. Seven to eight hours of sleep a night is associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and reduced overall cardiometabolic risk in adults. PLoS One. 2013;8:e72832.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Moraes W, Poyares D, Zalcman I, de Mello MT, Bittencourt LR, Santos-Silva R, et al. Association between body mass index and sleep duration assessed by objective methods in a representative sample of the adult population. Sleep Med. 2013;14:312–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Liu R, Liu X, Arguelles LM, Patwari PP, Zee PC, Chervin RD, et al. A population-based twin study on sleep duration and body composition. Obesity. 2012;20:192–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    St-Onge MP. The role of sleep duration in the regulation of energy balance: effects on energy intakes and expenditure. J Clin Sleep Med. 2013;9:73–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.•
    Watson NF, Harden KP, Buchwald D, Vitiello MV, Pack AI, Weigle DS, et al. Sleep duration and body mass index in twins: a gene environment interaction. Sleep. 2012;35:597–603. This U.S. twin study examined whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI. The authors found that shorter sleep duration was associated with increased BMI and increased genetic influences on BMI, suggesting that shorter sleep duration increases expression of genetic risks for high body weight.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chapman CD, Benedict C, Brooks SJ, Schiöth HB. Lifestyle determinants of the drive to eat: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:492–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.•
    Spaeth AM, Dinges DF, Goel N. Effects of experimental sleep restriction on weight gain, caloric intake, and meal timing in healthy adults. Sleep. 2013;36:981–90. In the largest, most diverse healthy sample studied to date under controlled laboratory conditions, this paper found substantial increases in weight and caloric intake as a result of sleep restriction. Marked increases in caloric intake, particularly from fats, occurred during the late-night hours.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Markwald RR, Melanson EL, Smith MR, Higgins J, Perreault L, Eckel RH, et al. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5695–700.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nedeltcheva AV, Kilkus JM, Imperial J, Kasza K, Schoeller DA, Penev PD. Sleep curtailment is accompanied by increased intake of calories from snacks. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:126–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brondel L, Romer MA, Nougues PM, Touyarou P, Davenne D. Acute partial sleep deprivation increases food intake in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:1550–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    St-Onge MP, Roberts AL, Chen J, Kelleman M, O'Keeffe M, RoyChoudhury A, et al. Short sleep duration increases energy intakes but does not change energy expenditure in normal-weight individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:410–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Brebbia DR, Altshuler KZ. Oxygen consumption rate and electroencephalographic stage of sleep. Science. 1965;150:1621–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.•
    Klingenberg L, Sjodin A, Holmback U, Astrup A, Chaput JP. Short sleep duration and its association with energy metabolism. Obes Rev. 2012;13:565–77. This comprehensive review details the relationship between short sleep and energy metabolism in animals and humans. It concludes that short sleep duration does not substantially affect total daily energy expenditure or specific components of energy metabolism in humans.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Benedict C, Hallschmid M, Lassen A, Mahnke C, Schultes B, Schiöth HB, et al. Acute sleep deprivation reduces energy expenditure in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:1229–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    St-Onge MP, Roberts AL, Chen J, Kelleman M, O'Keeffe M, Roy Choudhury A, et al. Short sleep duration increases energy intakes but does not change energy expenditure in normal-weight individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:410–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shechter A, Rising R, Albu JB, St-Onge MP. Experimental sleep curtailment causes wake-dependent increases in 24-h energy expenditure as measured by whole-room indirect calorimetry. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:1433-9.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jung CM, Melanson EL, Frydendall EJ, Perreault L, Eckel RH, Wright KP. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans. J Physiol. 2011;589:235–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    St-Onge MP, McReynolds A, Trivedi ZB, Roberts AL, Sy M, Hirsch J. Sleep restriction leads to increased activation of brain regions sensitive to food stimuli. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:818–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Benedict C, Brooks SJ, O'Daly OG, Almèn MS, Morell A, Åberg K, et al. Acute sleep deprivation enhances the brain's response to hedonic food stimuli: an fMRI study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E443–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    St-Onge MP, Wolfe S, Sy M, Shechter A, Hirsch J. Sleep restriction increases the neuronal response to unhealthy food in normal-weight individuals. Int J Obes. 2013. doi:  10.1038/ijo.2013.114. [Epub ahead of print]
  53. 53.
    Greer SM, Goldstein AN, Walker MP. The impact of sleep deprivation on food desire in the human brain. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2259.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Goo RH, Moore JG, Greenberg E, Alazraki NP. Circadian variation in gastric emptying of meals in humans. Gastroenterology. 1987;93:515–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Garaulet M, Ordovas JM, Madrid JA. The chronobiology, etiology, and pathophysiology of obesity. Int J Obes. 2010;34:1667–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Scheer FA, Morris CJ, Shea SA. The internal circadian clock increases hunger and appetite in the evening independent of food intake and other behaviors. Obesity. 2013;21:421–3.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Baron KG, Reid KJ, Kern AS, Zee PC. Role of sleep timing in caloric intake and BMI. Obesity. 2011;19:1374–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lucassen EA, Zhao X, Rother KI, Mattingly MS, Courville AB, de Jonge L, et al. Evening chronotype is associated with changes in eating behavior, more sleep apnea, and increased stress hormones in short sleeping obese individuals. PLoS One. 2013;8:e56519.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kanerva N, Kronholm E, Partonen T, Ovaskainen ML, Kaartinen NE, Konttinen H, et al. Tendency toward eveningness is associated with unhealthy dietary habits. Chronobiol Int. 2012;29:920–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Culnan E, Kloss JD, Grandner M. A prospective study of weight gain associated with chronotype among college freshmen. Chronobiol Int. 2013;30:682–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Taheri S, Lin L, Austin D, Young T, Mignot E. Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin, and increased body mass index. PLoS Med. 2004;1:e62.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Van Cauter E, Polonsky KS, Scheen AJ. Roles of circadian rhythmicity and sleep in human glucose regulation. Endocr Rev. 1997;18:716–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mullington JM, Chan JL, Van Dongen HP, Szuba MP, Samaras J, Price NJ, et al. Sleep loss reduces diurnal rhythm amplitude of leptin in healthy men. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15:851–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Spiegel K, Tasali E, Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Effects of poor and short sleep on glucose metabolism and obesity risk. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2009;5:253–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Buxton OM, Cain SW, O'Connor SP, Porter JH, Duffy JF, Wang W, et al. Adverse metabolic consequences in humans of prolonged sleep restriction combined with circadian disruption. Sci Transl Med. 2012;4:129ra43.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Scheer FA, Hilton MF, Mantzoros CS, Shea SA. Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4453–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.•
    Allison KC, Lundgren JD, O’Reardon JP, Geliebter A, Gluck ME, Vinai P, et al. Proposed diagnostic criteria for night eating syndrome. Int J Eat Disord. 2010;43:241–7. This paper presents the research diagnostic criteria for NES, the rationale for these criteria, and reviews issues related to assessment of the signs and symptoms of NES.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rand CSW, Macgregor MD, Stunkard AJ. The night eating syndrome in the general population and among post-operative obesity surgery patients. Int J Eat Disord. 1997;22:65–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Striegel-Moore RH, Franko DL, Thompson D, Affenito S, Kraemer HC. Night eating: prevalence and demographic correlates. Obesity. 2006;14:139–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lamerz A, Kuepper-Nybelen J, Bruning N, Wehle C, Trost-Brinkhues G, Brenner H, et al. Prevalence of obesity, binge eating and night eating in a cross sectional field survey of 6-year-old children and their parents in a German urban population. J Child Psychol Psychiat. 2005;46:385–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gallant AR, Lundgren J, Drapeau V. The night-eating syndrome and obesity. Obes Rev. 2012;13:528–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Vander Wal JS. Night eating syndrome: a critical review of the literature. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012;32:49–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tholin S, Lindroos A, Tynelius P, Akerstedt T, Stunkard AJ, Bulik CM, et al. Prevalence of night eating in obese and nonobese twins. Obesity. 2009;17:1050–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Andersen GS, Stunkard AJ, Sorensen TIA, Pedersen L, Heitman BL. Night eating and weight change in middle-aged men and women. Int J Obes. 2004;28:1138–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Colles SL, Dixon JB, O’Brien PE. Night eating syndrome and nocturnal snacking: association with obesity, binge eating and psychological distress. Int J Obes. 2007;31:1722–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lundgren JD, Allison KC, Crow S, O'Reardon JP, Berg KC, Galbraith J, et al. Prevalence of the night eating syndrome in a psychiatric population. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:156–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Aranoff NJ, Geliebter A, Zammit G. Gender and body mass index as related to the night-eating syndrome in obese outpatients. J Amer Diet Assoc. 2001;101:102–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gluck ME, Venti CA, Salbe AD, Krakoff J. Nighttime eating: commonly observed and related to weight gain in an inpatient food intake study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:900–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gluck ME, Venti CA, Salbe AD, Votruba SB, Krakoff J. Higher 24-h respiratory quotient and higher spontaneous physical activity in nighttime eaters. Obesity. 2011;19:319–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rogers NL, Dinges DF, Allison KC, Maislin G, Martino N, O'Reardon JP, et al. Assessment of sleep in women with night eating syndrome. Sleep. 2006;29:814–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    O’Reardon JP, Ringel BL, Dinges DF, Allison KC, Rogers NS, Martino NS, et al. Circadian eating and sleeping patterns in the night eating syndrome. Obesity Res. 2004;12:1789–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Boston RC, Moate PJ, Allison KC, Lundgren JD, Stunkard AJ. Modeling circadian rhythms of food intake by means of parametric deconvolution: results from studies on the night eating syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:1672–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Allison KC, Ahima RS, O’Reardon JP, Dinges DF, Sharma V, Cummings DE, et al. Neuroendocrine profiles associated with energy intake, sleep, and stress in the night eating syndrome. J Clin Endocrin Metab. 2005;90:6214–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Goel N, Stunkard AJ, Rogers NL, Van Dongen HPA, Allison KC, O’Reardon JP, et al. Circadian rhythm profiles in women with night eating syndrome. J Biol Rhythms. 2009;24:85–94.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Morse SA, Ciechanowski PS, Katon WJ, Hirsch IB. Isn’t this just bedtime snacking? The potential adverse effects of night-eating symptoms on treatment adherence outcomes in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1800–04.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    De Castro JM. The time of day of food intake influences overall intake in humans. J Nutr. 2004;134:104–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    van der Heijden AA, Hu FB, Rimm EB, van Dam RM. A prospective study of breakfast consumption and weight gain among U.S. men. Obesity. 2007;15:2463–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Keim NL, Van Loan MD, Horn WF, Barbieri TF, Mayclin PL. Weight loss is greater with consumption of large morning meals and fat-free mass is preserved with large evening meals in women on a controlled weight reduction regimen. J Nutr. 1997;127:75–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Garaulet M, Gómez-Abellán P, Alburquerque-Béjar JJ, Lee YC, Ordovás JM, Scheer FA. Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness. Int J Obes. 2013;37:604–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kant AK, Ballard-Barbash R, Schatzkin A. Evening eating and its relation to self-reported body weight and nutrient intake in women, CSFII 1985–86. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995;14:358–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kant AK, Schatzkin A, Ballard-Barbash R. Evening eating and subsequent long-term weight change in a national cohort. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997;21:407–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Qin LQ, Li J, Wang Y, Wang J, Xu JY, Kaneko T. The effects of nocturnal life on endocrine circadian patterns in healthy adults. Life Sci. 2003;73:2467–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hibi M, Masumoto A, Naito Y, et al. Nighttime snacking reduces whole body fat oxidation and increases LDL cholesterol in healthy young women. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013;304:R94–R101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    LeCheminant JD, Christenson E, Bailey BW, Tucker LA. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study. Br J Nutr. 2013;23:1–6.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Butryn ML, Webb V, Wadden TA. Behavioral treatment of obesity. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2011;34:841–59.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.•
    Allison KC. Cognitive behavioral therapy manual for night eating syndrome. In: Lundgren JD, Allison KC, Stunkard AJ, editors. Night Eating Syndrome: Research, Assessment, and Treatment. New York: Guilford; 2012. p. 246–65. This chapter describes cognitive behavioral therapy for NES and provides handouts and tools to apply the therapy in a clinical setting.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Allison KC, Lundgren JD, Moore RH, O’Reardon JP, Stunkard AJ. Cognitive behavior therapy for night eating syndrome: a pilot study. Am J Psychotherapy. 2010;64:91–106.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kelly C. Allison
    • 1
  • Namni Goel
    • 2
  • Rexford S. Ahima
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Weight and Eating Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Sleep and Chronobiology, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations