Delayed Timing of Eating: Impact on Weight and Metabolism
- 828 Downloads
Animal studies of delayed eating have provided useful information regarding the potential relationship between nighttime eating and increased weight and metabolic dysregulation, which occur in the absence of increased locomotion or increased caloric intake. We first review recent studies detailing these relationships and possible mechanisms in rodents. We then examine human data showing that sleep restriction leads to increased energy intake and weight gain, followed by a review of the human phenotype of delayed eating, night eating syndrome, and its relation to weight and metabolism. Finally, we examine human experimental studies of delayed eating and discuss preliminary data that show slight weight gain, dysfunction in energy expenditure, and abnormalities in the circadian rhythms of appetitive, stress, and sleep hormones. Well-controlled, longer-term experimental studies in humans are warranted to test the effect of delayed eating without sleep restriction to clarify whether limiting or eliminating nighttime eating could lead to weight loss and significantly improve related disorders, such as diabetes and heart disease, over time.
KeywordsSleep deprivation Circadian Delayed eating Energy intake Weight Energy expenditure Chronotype Leptin Ghrelin Night eating syndrome Macronutrients Metabolism
N. Goel was supported in writing this review by the Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research Award No. N00014-11-1-0361. R.S. Ahima was supported by National Institutes of Health grant P01-DK-049210.
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
Kelly C. Allison has received honoraria and travel expenses covered from Pfizer Pharmaceuticals. She also will receive future royalties from Guilford Publishers for her book Night Eating Syndrome: Research, Assessment, and Treatment.
Namni Goel declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Rexford S. Ahima declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
- 4.National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: the evidence report: National Institutes of Health. Obes Res. 1998;6 Suppl 2:51S–209S. Erratum, Obes Res 1998;6:464.Google Scholar
- 7.•Maury E, Ramsey KM, Bass J. Circadian rhythms and metabolic syndrome: from experimental genetics to human disease. Circ Res. 2010;106:447–62. This review highlights translational studies that describe how changes in the internal clock system and sleep, represent risk factors for disease, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. The authors describe how such research has provided new opportunities for mechanism-based therapeutics.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Hirao A, Nagahama H, Tsuboi T, Hirao M, Tahara Y, Shibata S. Combination of starvation interval and food volume determines the phase of liver circadian rhythm in Per2::Luc knock-in mice under two meals per day feeding. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G1045–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Wiater MF, Li AJ, Dinh TT, Jansen HT, Ritter S. Leptin-sensitive neurons in the arcuate nucleus integrate activity and temperature circadian rhythms and anticipatory responses to food restriction. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013;305:R949-60.Google Scholar
- 37.•Watson NF, Harden KP, Buchwald D, Vitiello MV, Pack AI, Weigle DS, et al. Sleep duration and body mass index in twins: a gene environment interaction. Sleep. 2012;35:597–603. This U.S. twin study examined whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI. The authors found that shorter sleep duration was associated with increased BMI and increased genetic influences on BMI, suggesting that shorter sleep duration increases expression of genetic risks for high body weight.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 39.•Spaeth AM, Dinges DF, Goel N. Effects of experimental sleep restriction on weight gain, caloric intake, and meal timing in healthy adults. Sleep. 2013;36:981–90. In the largest, most diverse healthy sample studied to date under controlled laboratory conditions, this paper found substantial increases in weight and caloric intake as a result of sleep restriction. Marked increases in caloric intake, particularly from fats, occurred during the late-night hours.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 45.•Klingenberg L, Sjodin A, Holmback U, Astrup A, Chaput JP. Short sleep duration and its association with energy metabolism. Obes Rev. 2012;13:565–77. This comprehensive review details the relationship between short sleep and energy metabolism in animals and humans. It concludes that short sleep duration does not substantially affect total daily energy expenditure or specific components of energy metabolism in humans.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 48.Shechter A, Rising R, Albu JB, St-Onge MP. Experimental sleep curtailment causes wake-dependent increases in 24-h energy expenditure as measured by whole-room indirect calorimetry. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:1433-9.Google Scholar
- 52.St-Onge MP, Wolfe S, Sy M, Shechter A, Hirsch J. Sleep restriction increases the neuronal response to unhealthy food in normal-weight individuals. Int J Obes. 2013. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2013.114. [Epub ahead of print]
- 67.•Allison KC, Lundgren JD, O’Reardon JP, Geliebter A, Gluck ME, Vinai P, et al. Proposed diagnostic criteria for night eating syndrome. Int J Eat Disord. 2010;43:241–7. This paper presents the research diagnostic criteria for NES, the rationale for these criteria, and reviews issues related to assessment of the signs and symptoms of NES.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 70.Lamerz A, Kuepper-Nybelen J, Bruning N, Wehle C, Trost-Brinkhues G, Brenner H, et al. Prevalence of obesity, binge eating and night eating in a cross sectional field survey of 6-year-old children and their parents in a German urban population. J Child Psychol Psychiat. 2005;46:385–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 94.LeCheminant JD, Christenson E, Bailey BW, Tucker LA. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study. Br J Nutr. 2013;23:1–6.Google Scholar
- 96.•Allison KC. Cognitive behavioral therapy manual for night eating syndrome. In: Lundgren JD, Allison KC, Stunkard AJ, editors. Night Eating Syndrome: Research, Assessment, and Treatment. New York: Guilford; 2012. p. 246–65. This chapter describes cognitive behavioral therapy for NES and provides handouts and tools to apply the therapy in a clinical setting.Google Scholar
- 97.Allison KC, Lundgren JD, Moore RH, O’Reardon JP, Stunkard AJ. Cognitive behavior therapy for night eating syndrome: a pilot study. Am J Psychotherapy. 2010;64:91–106.Google Scholar