Ten years of feasibility pump, and counting

  • Timo Berthold
  • Andrea LodiEmail author
  • Domenico Salvagnin


The Feasibility Pump (fp) is probably the best-known primal heuristic for mixed-integer programming. The original work by Fischetti et al. (Math Program 104(1):91–104, 2005), which introduced the heuristic for 0–1 mixed-integer linear programs, has been succeeded by more than twenty follow-up publications which improve the performance of the fp and extend it to other problem classes. Year 2015 was the tenth anniversary of the first fp publication. The present paper provides an overview of the diverse Feasibility Pump literature that has been presented over the last decade.


Mixed-integer programming Primal heuristics Mixed-integer programming solvers 

Mathematics Subject Classification

90C11 90C57 90C59 



The authors are indebted to two anonymous referees for their detailed reading and useful comments. The first author acknowledges the support of the Research Campus Modal funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Fund Number 05M14ZAM).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature and EURO - The Association of European Operational Research Societies 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fair IsaacBerlinGermany
  2. 2.CERC and École Polytechnique de MontréalMontrealCanada
  3. 3.DEI, University of PadovaPaduaItaly

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