EURO Journal on Computational Optimization

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 423–454 | Cite as

Variable neighborhood search: basics and variants

  • Pierre Hansen
  • Nenad Mladenović
  • Raca TodosijevićEmail author
  • Saïd Hanafi
Original Paper


Variable neighborhood search (VNS) is a framework for building heuristics, based upon systematic changes of neighborhoods both in a descent phase, to find a local minimum, and in a perturbation phase to escape from the corresponding valley. In this paper, we present some of VNS basic schemes as well as several VNS variants deduced from these basic schemes. In addition, the paper includes parallel implementations and hybrids with other metaheuristics.


Variable neighborhood search Metaheuristic Heuristic 

Mathematics Subject Classification

90C59 68T20 68W25 


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Copyright information

© EURO - The Association of European Operational Research Societies 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre Hansen
    • 1
  • Nenad Mladenović
    • 2
    • 3
  • Raca Todosijević
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Saïd Hanafi
    • 2
  1. 1.GERAD and HEC MontréalMontréalCanada
  2. 2.LAMIH-UVHC, CNRS UMR 8201Valenciennes Cedex 9France
  3. 3.Mathematical InstituteSANUBelgradeSerbia

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