Current Geriatrics Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 179–190 | Cite as

Applying the Evidence for Exercise Prescription in Older Adults with Knee Osteoarthritis

  • Amy S. HammerichEmail author
  • Wendy K. Anemaet
Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation (O Addison, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation


Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is prevalent and disabling condition in older adults. Pain, weakness, instability, stiffness, and loss of mobility result in a reduction of physical, recreational, and social activities that impact an individual’s health, lifestyle, and societal role. Exercise is highly beneficial for the many body systems that are impacted indirectly by this disease as well as for improving quality of life. The purpose of this narrative review is to identify exercise options and dosage parameters to aid the clinician in assisting individuals with knee OA. These exercise options include cardiovascular training, resistance training, and balance or neuromuscular control training, which work to improve the cardiovascular and neuromuscular systems to improve function. The application of exercise by health care professionals is often dosed at levels which may not achieve optimal gains for the individual desiring to restore functional activities and improve recreational and social participation. Understanding the current literature on prescribing exercise for individuals with knee OA aids clinicians in obtaining better patient outcomes.


Osteoarthritis knee Knee joint Exercise Resistance training Cardiovascular training Balance training 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Wendy Anemaet and Amy Hammerich declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Felson DT. Risk factors for osteoarthritis: understanding joint vulnerability. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004;427:S16–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cisternas MG, Murphy L, Sacks JJ, Solomon DH, Pasta DJ, Helmick CG. Alternative methods for defining osteoarthritis and the impact on estimating prevalence in a US population based survey. Arthritis care & research 2015.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hootman JM, Helmick CG, Barbour KE, Theis KA, Boring MA. Updated projected prevalence of self-reported doctor diagnosed arthritis and arthritis attributable activity limitation among US adults, 2015–2040. Arthritis & rheumatology 2016.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Deshpande BR, Katz JN, Solomon DH, Yelin EH, Hunter DJ, Messier SP et al. The number of persons with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in the United States: impact of race/ethnicity, age, sex, and obesity. Arthritis care & research 2016.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Showery J, Kusnezov N, Dunn JC, Bader JO, Belmont PJ, Waterman BR. The rising incidence of degenerative and post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the knee in the United States military. The Journal of Arthroplasty 2016.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Patrick DL, Ramsey SD, Spencer AC, Kinne S, Belza B, Topolski TD. Economic evaluation of aquatic exercise for persons with osteoarthritis. Med Care. 2001;39(5):413–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Glass G. Osteoarthritis. Disease-A-Month: DM [Dis Mon]. 2006;52(9):343–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jordan JM, Luta G, Renner JB, Dragomir A, Hochberg MC, Fryer JG. Ethnic differences in self-reported functional status in the rural south: the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project. Arthritis Rheum. 1996;9(6):483–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dieppe PA, Lohmander LS. Pathogenesis and management of pain in osteoarthritis. Lancet. 2005;365(9463):965–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rothfuss Jr, Mau W, Zeidler H, Brenner MH. Socioeconomic evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: a literature review. Proceedings of the Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism: Elsevier; 1997.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rodriguez-Merchan EC. Conservative treatment of acute knee osteoarthritis: a review of the Cochrane Library. Journal of Acute Disease 2016.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miyagawa H, Ikemoto T, Honjo H, Akao M, Tsujimoto T, Ushida T. One-year results of voluntary-based supervised exercise or treatment at orthopedic clinic for radiographic severe knee osteoarthritis. J Phys Ther Sci. 2016;28(3):906–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fitzgerald G, Fritz J, Childs J, Brennan G, Talisa V, Gil A et al. Exercise, manual therapy, and use of booster sessions in physical therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a multi-center, factorial randomized clinical trial. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2016.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    French H, Brennan A, White B, Cusack T. Manual therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee; a systematic review. Man Ther. 2011;16(2):109–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gay C, Chabaud A, Guilley E, Coudeyre E. Educating patients about the benefits of physical activity and exercise for their hip and knee osteoarthritis. Systematic literature review. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2016.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Haskell WL, Lee I-M, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007;116(9):1081.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nelson ME, Rejeski WJ, Blair SN, Duncan PW, Judge JO, King AC, et al. Physical activity and public health in older adults: recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007;116(9):1094.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.••
    Juhl C, Christensen R, Roos EM, Zhang W, Lund H. Impact of exercise type and dose on pain and disability in knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66(3):622–36. Supervised exercise performed 3 times a week is optimal for individuals with knee OA. Exercise modes performed independently show higher benefit than mixed modes.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang S-Y, Olson-Kellogg B, Shamliyan TA, Choi J-Y, Ramakrishnan R, Kane RL. Physical therapy interventions for knee pain secondary to osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(9):632–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    White J, Wright V, Hudson A. Relationships between habitual physical activity and osteoarthrosis in ageing women. Public Health. 1993;107(6):459–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Felson DT, Niu J, Clancy M, Sack B, Aliabadi P, Zhang Y. Effect of recreational physical activities on the development of knee osteoarthritis in older adults of different weights: the Framingham Study. Arthritis Care Res. 2007;57(1):6–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Spector TD, Harris PA, Hart DJ, Cicuttini FM, Nandra D, Etherington J, et al. Risk of osteoarthritis associated with long-term weight-bearing sports: a radiologic survey of the hips and knees in female ex-athletes and population controls. Arthritis Rheum. 1996;39(6):988–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chakravarty EF, Hubert HB, Lingala VB, Zatarain E, Fries JF. Long distance running and knee osteoarthritis: a prospective study. Am J Prev Med. 2008;35(2):133–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hunter DJ, Eckstein F. Exercise and osteoarthritis. J Anat. 2009;214(2):197–207.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Slemenda C, Heilman DK, Brandt KD, Katz BP, Mazzuca SA, Braunstein EM, et al. Reduced quadriceps strength relative to body weight: a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis in women? Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41(11):1951–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hootman JM, FitzGerald SJ, Macera CA, Blair SN. Lower extremity muscle strength and risk of self-reported hip or knee osteoarthritis. J Phys Act Health. 2004;1(4):321.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chang A, Hayes K, Dunlop D, Hurwitz D, Song J, Genge R, et al. Thrust during ambulation and the progression of knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50(12):3897–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Michalsson K, Byberg L, Ahlbom A, Melhus H, Farahmand BY. Risk of severe knee and hip osteoarthritis in relation to level of physical exercise: a prospective cohort study of long-distance skiers in Sweden. PLoS One. 2011;6(3):e18339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Szoeke C, Dennerstein L, Guthrie J, Clark M, Cicuttini F. The relationship between prospectively assessed body weight and physical activity and prevalence of radiological knee osteoarthritis in postmenopausal women. J Rheumatol. 2006;33(9):1835–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Uthman OA, van der Windt DA, Jordan JL, Dziedzic KS, Healey EL, Peat GM, et al. Exercise for lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review incorporating trial sequential analysis and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013;347:f5555.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fransen M, McConnell S. Exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;4(4).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhang W, Doherty M, Peat G, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Arden N, Bresnihan B et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Annals of the rheumatic diseases 2009.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bosomworth NJ. Exercise and knee osteoarthritis: benefit or hazard? Can Fam Physician. 2009;55(9):871–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.•
    Smith T, Kirby E, Davies L. A systematic review to determine the optimal type and dosage of land-based exercises for treating knee osteoarthritis. Phys Ther Rev. 2014;19(2):105–13. Exercise modes and intensities do not have significantly different outcomes across studies.Google Scholar
  35. 35.••
    Fransen M, McConnell S, Harmer AR, Van der Esch M, Simic M, Bennell KL. Exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee: a Cochrane systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49(24):1554–7. Land-based exercise modes provide 2–6 month short-term benefits.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bartels EM, Lund H, Hagen KrB, Dagfinrud H, Christensen R, Danneskiold-Samsoe B. Aquatic exercise for the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;4.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Medicine ACoS. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Messier SP, Mihalko SL, Legault C, Miller GD, Nicklas BJ, DeVita P, et al. Effects of intensive diet and exercise on knee joint loads, inflammation, and clinical outcomes among overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis: the IDEA randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013;310(12):1263–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Foley A, Halbert J, Hewitt T, Crotty M. Does hydrotherapy improve strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis; a randomised controlled trial comparing a gym based and a hydrotherapy based strengthening programme. Ann Rheum Dis. 2003;62(12):1162–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rogind H, Bibow-Nielsen B, Jensen B, Moller HC, Frimodt-Moller H, Bliddal H. The effects of a physical training program on patients with osteoarthritis of the knees. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;79(11):1421–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bennell K, Hinman R, Metcalf B, Buchbinder R, McConnell J, McColl G, et al. Efficacy of physiotherapy management of knee joint osteoarthritis: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64(6):906–12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Foroughi N, Smith RM, Lange AK, Baker MK, Singh MAF, Vanwanseele B. Lower limb muscle strengthening does not change frontal plane moments in women with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Biomech. 2011;26(2):167–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jan M-H, Lin C-H, Lin Y-F, Lin J-J, Lin D-H. Effects of weight-bearing versus nonweight-bearing exercise on function, walking speed, and position sense in participants with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;90(6):897–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lim BW, Hinman RS, Wrigley TV, Sharma L, Bennell KL. Does knee malalignment mediate the effects of quadriceps strengthening on knee adduction moment, pain, and function in medial knee osteoarthritis? A randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Care Res. 2008;59(7):943–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Van Baar M, Dekker J, Oostendorp R, Bijl D, Voorn T, Lemmens J, et al. The effectiveness of exercise therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a randomized clinical trial. J Rheumatol. 1998;25(12):2432–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhang W, Moskowitz R, Nuki G, Abramson S, Altman R, Arden N, et al. OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, Part II: OARSI evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines. Osteoarthr Cartil. 2008;16(2):137–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pelland L, Brosseau L, Wells G, MacLeay L, Lambert J, Lamothe C, et al. Efficacy of strengthening exercises for osteoarthritis (part I): a meta-analysis. Phys Ther Rev. 2004;9(2):77–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kelley GA, Kelley KS, Hootman JM. Effects of exercise on depression in adults with arthritis: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arthritis Res Therapy. 2015;17(1):21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kim I-S, Chung S-H, Park Y-J, Kang H-Y. The effectiveness of an aquarobic exercise program for patients with osteoarthritis. Appl Nurs Res. 2012;25(3):181–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ettinger WH, Burns R, Messier SP, Applegate W, Rejeski WJ, Morgan T, et al. A randomized trial comparing aerobic exercise and resistance exercise with a health education program in older adults with knee osteoarthritis: the Fitness Arthritis and Seniors Trial (FAST). JAMA. 1997;277(1):25–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Penninx BW, Messier SP, Rejeski WJ, Williamson JD, DiBari M, Cavazzini C, et al. Physical exercise and the prevention of disability in activities of daily living in older persons with osteoarthritis. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(19):2309–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kovar PA, Allegrante JP, MacKenzie CR, Peterson MG, Gutin B, Charlson ME. Supervised fitness walking in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116(7):529–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bautch JC, Malone DG, Vailas AC. Effects of exercise on knee joints with osteoarthritis: a pilot study of biologic markers. Arthritis Rheum. 1997;10(1):48–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bautch JC, Clayton MK, Chu Q, Johnson KA. Synovial fluid chondroitin sulphate epitopes 3B3 and 7D4, and glycosaminoglycan in human knee osteoarthritis after exercise. Ann Rheum Dis. 2000;59(11):887–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Thomas K, Muir K, Doherty M, Jones A, O’Reilly S, Bassey E. Home based exercise programme for knee pain and knee osteoarthritis: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2002;325(7367):752.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rejeski WJ, Focht BC, Messier SP, Morgan T, Pahor M, Penninx B. Obese, older adults with knee osteoarthritis: weight loss, exercise, and quality of life. Health Psychol. 2002;21(5):419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    O’Reilly SC, Muir KR, Doherty M. Effectiveness of home exercise on pain and disability from osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomised controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 1999;58(1):15–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Allison MA, Jensky NE, Marshall SJ, Bertoni AG, Cushman M. Sedentary behavior and adiposity-associated inflammation: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(1):8–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gleeson M, Bishop NC, Stensel DJ, Lindley MR, Mastana SS, Nimmo MA. The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011;11(9):607–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Petersen AMW, Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2005;98(4):1154–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Evcik D, Sonel B. Effectiveness of a home-based exercise therapy and walking program on osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheumatol Int. 2002;22(3):103–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Minor MA, Webel RR, Kay DR, Hewett JE, Anderson SK. Efficacy of physical conditioning exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1989;32(11):1396–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Alkatan M, Machin DR, Baker JR, Akkari AS, Park W, Tanaka H. Effects of swimming and cycling exercise intervention on vascular function in patients with osteoarthritis. Am J Cardiol. 2016;117(1):141–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Penninx BW, Rejeski WJ, Pandya J, Miller ME, Di Bari M, Applegate WB, et al. Exercise and depressive symptoms a comparison of aerobic and resistance exercise effects on emotional and physical function in older persons with high and low depressive symptomatology. J Gerontol Ser B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2002;57(2):124–P32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Salacinski AJ, Krohn K, Lewis SF, Holland ML, Ireland K, Marchetti G. The effects of group cycling on gait and pain-related disability in individuals with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012;42(12):985–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mangione KK, McCully K, Gloviak A, Lefebvre I, Hofmann M, Craik R. The effects of high-intensity and low-intensity cycle ergometry in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. J Gerontol Ser A: Biol Sci Med Sci. 1999;54(4):M184–M90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hughes SL, Seymour RB, Campbell R, Pollak N, Huber G, Sharma L. Impact of the fit and strong intervention on older adults with osteoarthritis. The Gerontologist. 2004;44(2):217–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Talbot LA, Gaines JM, Huynh TN, Metter EJ. A home based pedometer driven walking program to increase physical activity in older adults with osteoarthritis of the knee: a preliminary study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(3):387–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Toda Y. The effect of energy restriction, walking, and exercise on lower extremity lean body mass in obese women with osteoarthritis of the knee. J Orthop Sci. 2001;6(2):148–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Messier SP, Gutekunst DJ, Davis C, DeVita P. Weight loss reduces knee joint loads in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52(7):2026–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Roper JA, Bressel E, Tillman MD. Acute aquatic treadmill exercise improves gait and pain in people with knee osteoarthritis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;94(3):419–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hunter GR, McCarthy JP, Bamman MM. Effects of resistance training on older adults. Sports Med. 2004;34(5):329–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schilke JM, Johnson GO, Housh TJ, O’Dell JR. Effects of muscle-strength training on the functional status of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Nurs Res. 1996;45(2):68–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Peloquin L, Bravo G, Gauthier P, Lacombe G, Billiard J-S. Effects of a cross-training exercise program in persons with osteoarthritis of the knee a randomized controlled trial. JCR: J Clin Rheumatol. 1999;5(3):126–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Callaghan M, Oldham J. An evaluation of exercise regimes for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 1995;9(3):213–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Borjesson M, Weidenhielm L, Elfving B, Olsson E. Tests of walking ability at different speeds in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Physiother Res Int. 2007;12(2):115–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Deyle GD, Henderson NE, Matekel RL, Ryder MG, Garber MB, Allison SC. Effectiveness of manual physical therapy and exercise in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(3):173–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.••
    Escalante Y, Saavedra JM, Garcia-Hermoso A, Silva AJ, Barbosa TM. Physical exercise and reduction of pain in adults with lower limb osteoarthritis: a systematic review. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2010;23(4):175–86. The impact of exercise modes on cardiovascular fitness in individuals with OA is unknown and since exercise programs are heterogeneous, best dosage parameters are unclear. Land based exercise including tai chi, aerobic and mixed exercise provide the best results for individuals with lower extremity OA.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lange AK, Vanwanseele B. Strength training for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review. Arthritis Care Res. 2008;59(10):1488–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tanaka R, Ozawa J, Kito N, Moriyama H. Efficacy of strengthening or aerobic exercise on pain relief in people with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Rehabil. 2013;27(12):1059–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Eyigor S. A comparison of muscle training methods in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2004;23(2):109–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gur H, Cakin N, Akova B, Okay E, Kucukoglu S. Concentric versus combined concentric-eccentric isokinetic training: effects on functional capacity and symptoms in patients with osteoarthrosis of the knee. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83(3):308–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Topp R, Woolley S, Hornyak J, Khuder S, Kahaleh B. The effect of dynamic versus isometric resistance training on pain and functioning among adults with osteoarthritis of the knee. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83(9):1187–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Topp R, Boardley D, Morgan AL, Fahlman M, McNevin N. Exercise and functional tasks among adults who are functionally limited. West J Nurs Res. 2005;27(3):252–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Diracoglu D, Aydin R, Baskent A, Celik A. Effects of kinesthesia and balance exercises in knee osteoarthritis. JCR: J Clin Rheumatol. 2005;11(6):303–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lin D-H, Lin Y-F, Chai H-M, Han Y-C, Jan M-H. Comparison of proprioceptive functions between computerized proprioception facilitation exercise and closed kinetic chain exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26(4):520–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mikesky AE, Mazzuca SA, Brandt KD, Perkins SM, Damush T, Lane KA. Effects of strength training on the incidence and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Care Res. 2006;55(5):690–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Escalante Y, Saavedra JM, Garcia-Hermoso A, Silva AJ, Barbosa TM. Physical exercise and reduction of pain in adults with lower limb osteoarthritis: a systematic review. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2010;23(4):175–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Brosseau L, Pelland L, Wells G, Macleay L, Lamothe C, Michaud G, et al. Efficacy of aerobic exercises for osteoarthritis (part II): a meta-analysis. Phys Ther Rev. 2004;9(3):125–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jorge RTB, de Souza MC, Chiari A, Jones A, Fernandes AdRC, Janior IL et al. Progressive resistance exercise in women with osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 2015:0269215514540920.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tanaka R, Ozawa J, Kito N, Moriyama H. Effect of the frequency and duration of land-based therapeutic exercise on pain relief for people with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Phys Ther Sci. 2014;26(7):969–75.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    DiBrezzo R, Shadden BB, Raybon BH, Powers M. Exercise intervention designed to improve strength and dynamic balance among community-dwelling older adults. J Aging Phys Act. 2005;13(2):198–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tanaka R, Ozawa J, Kito N, Moriyama H. Does exercise therapy improve the health-related quality of life of people with knee osteoarthritis? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015;27(10):3309.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Fleck SJ, Dean LS. Resistance-training experience and the pressor response during resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1987;63(1):116–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Salli A, Sahin N, Baskent A, Ugurlu H. The effect of two exercise programs on various functional outcome measures in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2010;18(4):201–9.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Bruce-Brand RA, Walls RJ, Ong JC, Emerson BS, OByrne JM, Moyna NM. Effects of home-based resistance training and neuromuscular electrical stimulation in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13(1):1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jan M-H, Lin J-J, Liau J-J, Lin Y-F, Lin D-H. Investigation of clinical effects of high-and low-resistance training for patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2008;88(4):427–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Petersen SG, Beyer N, Hansen M, Holm L, Aagaard P, Mackey AL, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or glucosamine reduced pain and improved muscle strength with resistance training in a randomized controlled trial of knee osteoarthritis patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;92(8):1185–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hopman-Rock M, Westhoff MH. The effects of a health educational and exercise program for older adults with osteoarthritis for the hip or knee. J Rheumatol. 2000;27(8):1947–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Akyol Y, Durmus D, Alayli G, Tander B, Bek Y, Canturk F, et al. Does short-wave diathermy increase the effectiveness of isokinetic exercise on pain, function, knee muscle strength, quality of life, and depression in the patients with knee osteoarthritis? A randomized controlled clinical study. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2010;46(3):325–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Beaupre LA, Lier D, Davies DM, Johnston DBC. The effect of a preoperative exercise and education program on functional recovery, health related quality of life, and health service utilization following primary total knee arthroplasty. J Rheumatol. 2004;31(6):1166–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Huang M-H, Lin Y-S, Yang R-C, Lee C-L. A comparison of various therapeutic exercises on the functional status of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Proceedings of the Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism: Elsevier; 2003.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    McQuade KJ, de Oliveira AS. Effects of progressive resistance strength training on knee biomechanics during single leg step-up in persons with mild knee osteoarthritis. Clin Biomech. 2011;26(7):741–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Knutzen KM, BRILLA LR, CAINE D. Validity of 1RM prediction equations for older adults. J Strength Cond Res. 1999;13(3):242–6.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sled EA, Khoja L, Deluzio KJ, Olney SJ, Culham EG. Effect of a home program of hip abductor exercises on knee joint loading, strength, function, and pain in people with knee osteoarthritis: a clinical trial. Phys Ther. 2010;90(6):895–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Topp R, Woolley S, Hornyak Iii J, Khuder S, Kahaleh B. The effect of dynamic versus isometric resistance training on pain and functioning among adults with osteoarthritis of the knee. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83(9):1187–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Peterson MD, Rhea MR, Alvar BA. Application of the dose–response for muscular strength development: a review of meta-analytic efficacy and reliability for designing training prescription. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(4):950–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hurley MV, Scott DL, Rees J, Newham DJ. Sensorimotor changes and functional performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1997;56(11):641–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Fitzpatrick R, McCloskey D. Proprioceptive, visual and vestibular thresholds for the perception of sway during standing in humans. J Physiol. 1994;478(Pt 1):173.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wang C, Collet JP, Lau J. The effect of Tai Chi on health outcomes in patients with chronic conditions: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(5):493–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Brismee J-M, Paige RL, Chyu M-C, Boatright JD, Hagar JM, McCaleb JA, et al. Group and home-based tai chi in elderly subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2007;21(2):99–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ni G-X, Song L, Yu B, Huang C-H, Lin J-H. Tai chi improves physical function in older Chinese women with knee osteoarthritis. JCR: J Clin Rheumatol. 2010;16(2):64–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Song R, Lee E-O, Lam P, Bae S-C. Effects of tai chi exercise on pain, balance, muscle strength, and perceived difficulties in physical functioning in older women with osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial. J Rheumatol. 2003;30(9):2039–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wang C, Schmid CH, Hibberd PL, Kalish R, Roubenoff R, Rones R, et al. Tai Chi is effective in treating knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Care Res. 2009;61(11):1545–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hall A, Maher C, Latimer J, Ferreira M. The effectiveness of Tai Chi for chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Care Res. 2009;61(6):717–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Chaipinyo K, Karoonsupcharoen O. No difference between home-based strength training and home-based balance training on pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomised trial. Aust J Physiother. 2009;55(1):25–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Fitzgerald GK, Piva SR, Gil AB, Wisniewski SR, Oddis CV, Irrgang JJ. Agility and perturbation training techniques in exercise therapy for reducing pain and improving function in people with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial. Phys Ther. 2011;91(4):452–69.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hurley M, Scott D. Improvements in quadriceps sensorimotor function and disability of patients with knee osteoarthritis following a clinically practicable exercise regime. Rheumatology. 1998;37(11):1181–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ageberg E, Link A, Roos EM. Feasibility of neuromuscular training in patients with severe hip or knee OA: the individualized goal-based NEMEX-TJR training program. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010;11(1):126.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Jan M-H, Tang P-F, Lin J-J, Tseng S-C, Lin Y-F, Un D-H. Efficacy of a target-matching foot-stepping exercise on proprioception and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2008;38(1):19–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wyatt FB, Milam S, Manske RC, Deere R. The effects of aquatic and traditional exercise programs on persons with knee osteoarthritis. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15(3):337–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Cochrane T, Davey RC, Edwards SMM. Randomised controlled trial of the cost-effectiveness of water-based therapy for lower limb osteoarthritis. Gray; 2005.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Boutaugh ML. Arthritis foundation community-based physical activity programs: effectiveness and implementation issues. Arthritis Care Res. 2003;49(3):463–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Wang TJ, Lee SC, Liang SY, Tung HH, Wu SFV, Lin YP. Comparing the efficacy of aquatic exercises and land based exercises for patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Clin Nurs. 2011;20(17):2609–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Messier SP, Loeser RF, Miller GD, Morgan TM, Rejeski WJ, Sevick MA, et al. Exercise and dietary weight loss in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis: the arthritis, diet, and activity promotion trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50(5):1501–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Wang TJ, Belza B, Elaine Thompson F, Whitney JD, Bennett K. Effects of aquatic exercise on flexibility, strength and aerobic fitness in adults with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. J Adv Nurs. 2007;57(2):141–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lin SY, Davey R, Cochrane T. Community rehabilitation for older adults with osteoarthritis of the lower limb: a controlled clinical trial. Clin Rehabil. 2004;18(1):92–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Brady TJ, Kruger J, Helmick CG, Callahan LF, Boutaugh ML. Intervention programs for arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. Health Educ Behav. 2003;30(1):44–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Sharma L, Song J, Hayes K, Pai YC, Dunlop D. Physical functioning over three years in knee osteoarthritis: role of psychosocial, local mechanical, and neuromuscular factors. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48(12):3359–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Brouwer G, Van Tol A, Bergink A, Belo J, Bernsen R, Reijman M, et al. Association between valgus and varus alignment and the development and progression of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56(4):1204–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sharma L, Song J, Dunlop D, Felson D, Lewis CE, Segal N, et al. Varus and valgus alignment and incident and progressive knee osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69(11):1940–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Physical TherapyRegis UniversityDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations