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Infant Growth and Long-term Cardiometabolic Health: a Review of Recent Findings

  • Jessica G. WooEmail author
Maternal and Childhood Nutrition (AC Wood, Section Editor)
  • 1 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Maternal and Childhood Nutrition

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Infant weight gain is recognized to increase obesity risk across the lifespan. This review evaluates recent evidence relating growth in infancy to childhood, adolescent and adult body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors.

Recent Findings

Greater weight or BMI gains in infancy increase both fat mass and fat-free mass in later life, but may preferentially contribute to central adiposity. Impacts of infant growth on cardiometabolic health are mixed, and most findings are attenuated after adjusting for current body size.

Summary

Infant weight gain, length gain, and BMI changes are important in establishing risk for cardiometabolic health across the lifespan. Infant growth effects on cardiometabolic health may be indirect, acting through changes in obesity risk or body composition.

Keywords

Catch-up growth Infant weight gain Body composition Lipids Insulin Blood pressure 

Abbreviations

ADP

Air-displacement plethysmography (Pea Pod or Bod Pod)

AGA

Appropriate for gestational age

AGEAP

Age at infant BMI peak

AUC

Area under the curve

AUS

Abdominal ultrasound

BIA

Bioelectrical impedance

BMI

Body mass index

BMIAP

BMI at infant BMI peak

CDC

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

cIMT

Carotid intima media thickness

DOHaD

Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

DXA

Dual x-ray absorptiometry

FFM

Fat-free mass

FFMI

Fat-free mass index

FM

Fat mass

FMI

Fat mass index

FPIR

First-phase insulin response

IFG

Impaired fasting glucose

LBW

Low birth weight

LV

Left ventricular

MetS

Metabolic syndrome

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

NA

Not assessed/not available

PMA

Post-menstrual age

PWV

Pre-peak weight velocity

SAT

Subcutaneous adipose tissue

SDS

Standard deviation score (z-score)

SFT

Skinfold thicknesses

SGA

Small for gestational age

SITAR

Superimposition by Translation and Rotation

SST

Sum of skinfold thicknesses

T2DM

Type 2 diabetes

TBW

Total body water, assessed by deuterium excretion

VAT

Visceral adipose tissue

VLBW

Very low birth weight

WBISI

Whole-body insulin sensitivity index

WHO

World Health Organization

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Jessica G. Woo declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Biostatistics and EpidemiologyCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Cincinnati College of MedicineCincinnatiUSA

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