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Current Nutrition Reports

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 247–256 | Cite as

Inflammation: a New Player in the Link Between Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes Mellitus: a Review

  • Efi Koloverou
  • Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos
Cardiovascular Disease (JHY Wu, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Cardiovascular Disease

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Mediterranean diet (MD) has been inversely linked with insulin resistance and diabetes, while inflammation is recognized as a common denominator in cardiometabolic disorders. Here, we review the synergistic effect between MD and inflammation, the anti-inflammatory properties of core MD components, and the possible biological mechanisms linking nutrients with inflammation.

Recent Findings

MD is abundant in anti-inflammatory foods, like whole grains, fruits and vegetables, wine, olive oil, nuts, and fish. This results in a high intake of various polyphenols, as well as high unsaturated/saturated and n3/n6 fatty acid ratios, leading through different mechanisms, such as oxidative stress reduction, alteration of NF-κB, PPAR-γ pathways, prebiotic function on gut microbiota, and others, to an attenuation of inflammation state.

Summary

MD is comprised by a plethora of foods, with anti-inflammatory potential, so its observed anti-diabetic effect could, at least partially, be ascribed to an attenuation of inflammation state.

Keywords

Mediterranean diet Diabetes Inflammation Cardiometabolic disorders 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Efi Koloverou and Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does contain studies with human subjects performed by any of the authors. For these studies, informed consent had been provided.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Health, Science and Education, Department of Nutrition and DieteticsHarokopio UniversityAthensGreece

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