Inflammation: a New Player in the Link Between Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes Mellitus: a Review
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Purpose of Review
Mediterranean diet (MD) has been inversely linked with insulin resistance and diabetes, while inflammation is recognized as a common denominator in cardiometabolic disorders. Here, we review the synergistic effect between MD and inflammation, the anti-inflammatory properties of core MD components, and the possible biological mechanisms linking nutrients with inflammation.
MD is abundant in anti-inflammatory foods, like whole grains, fruits and vegetables, wine, olive oil, nuts, and fish. This results in a high intake of various polyphenols, as well as high unsaturated/saturated and n3/n6 fatty acid ratios, leading through different mechanisms, such as oxidative stress reduction, alteration of NF-κB, PPAR-γ pathways, prebiotic function on gut microbiota, and others, to an attenuation of inflammation state.
MD is comprised by a plethora of foods, with anti-inflammatory potential, so its observed anti-diabetic effect could, at least partially, be ascribed to an attenuation of inflammation state.
KeywordsMediterranean diet Diabetes Inflammation Cardiometabolic disorders
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Efi Koloverou and Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does contain studies with human subjects performed by any of the authors. For these studies, informed consent had been provided.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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