Dietary Patterns May Sustain Weight Loss among Adults
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Sustainable weight loss requires a shift in eating behaviour maintained over a long time period. Research in this area focuses on dietary patterns based on cuisines that emphasise intakes of common core foods or those that target specific nutrients, such as fat. This review examined the literature to identify evidence on dietary patterns that may be effective for sustained weight loss. Medline, Pubmed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were searched for relevant literature, and 14 trials were reviewed. Overall, Mediterranean, vegetarian, and low-fat dietary patterns were associated with sustained weight loss under energy-restricted conditions. Evidence to support the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet for sustained weight loss without an energy deficit was inconsistent. Core foods emphasised in dietary patterns associated with weight loss included fruit, vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, and olive oil. Further research involving matched behavioural interventions is required to conclusively identify dietary patterns most conducive to sustained weight loss.
KeywordsDietary patterns Weight loss Mediterranean diet Low-fat Vegetarian Vegan Prudent Dietary scores Nutrient density Humans Adults
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
Linda C. Tapsell has served on the Science Advisory Committee of McCormick Science Institute, will receive royalties from Oxford University Press for work on a nutrition textbook, and has received reimbursement for travel/accommodations/meeting expenses from the California Walnut Commission.
Elizabeth P. Neale has received financial support through a grant from Pork CRC, has received compensation from Safcol Australia for service as a consultant, and has received payment for manuscript preparation from Pork CRC.
Deborah J. Nolan-Clark has received financial support through a grant from Pork CRC, has received compensation from Safcol Australia for service as a consultant, and has received payment for manuscript preparation from Pork CRC.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of particular importance
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