Lung Transplant for Cystic Fibrosis
- 1k Downloads
This article reviews lung transplants for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Advances in medical therapy have resulted in increased survival for CF patients. Respiratory failure continues to be the leading cause of mortality. CF is a complex disease and a challenge for both CF and transplant physicians. This review covers the recent literature related to aspects of pre-lung-transplant mechanical ventilation and pre/post-transplant infection management. We also review post-operative management of the broad range of systemic complications related to cystic fibrosis, including diabetes, malnutrition, CF-liver disease, and malignancy. Improvements to surgical technique, organ procurement and preservation, and post-operative management in the intensive care unit could improve overall survival.
KeywordsLung transplant Cystic fibrosis Respiratory failure Lung allocation score
Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which encodes and produces a defective chloride channel resulting in multi-organ disease . With advances in medical therapy, the median predicted survival age for people with CF has risen steadily over the last 25 years. In 2011, the median survival age was 36.8 years . Despite therapeutic advances respiratory failure accounts for most morbidity and mortality, and lung transplant is the only treatment option to improve survival. Although, among all lung diseases requiring transplants, median survival is longest for CF patients, post-transplant complications are the second most common cause of mortality .
Referral and Evaluation
CF is a complex disease which causes multiple comorbidity, including chronic respiratory failure from infections, liver dysfunction, pancreatic insufficiency resulting in diabetes, chronic sinusitis, and chronic malnourishment. Assessing the appropriate timing for lung transplant referral and for the transplant itself is a continual challenge for both CF and transplant physicians. As well as medical comorbidity, psychosocial difficulties greatly affect overall outcomes in the pre and post-transplant periods.
Guidelines for referral (Ref. )
FEV1 below 30 % predicted or a rapid decline in FEV1—in particular for young female patients
Exacerbation of pulmonary disease requiring ICU stay
Increasing frequency of exacerbation requiring antibiotic therapy
Refractory and/or recurrent pneumothorax
Recurrent hemoptysis not controlled by embolization
Absolute contraindications (Ref. )
Malignancy within the past two years, with the exception of cutaneous squamous and basal cell cancers. Recommend five-year disease-free interval.
Untreatable advanced dysfunction of another major organ system (e.g. heart, kidney, or liver).
Non-curable chronic infection (e.g. human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C)
Significant chest wall or spinal deformity
Documented non-adherence or inability to follow through with medical therapy and/or appointments
Untreatable psychiatric or psychosocial condition
Absence of a consistent or reliable social support system
Active (or active within the last six months) substance addiction (e.g. tobacco, alcohol, or narcotics)
Kerem et al. showed, via regression analysis, by use of models with single covariates, that FVC below 40 % predicted value, FEV1 below 30 % predicted value, PaO2 less than 55 mm Hg, PaCO2 greater than 50 mm Hg, and weight–height percentage (weight as a percentage of the ideal weight for height and sex), were stronger predictors of greater than 50 % mortality within two years of transplant than any other factor except age and gender. However, use of the same covariates in multiple-variable models found the strongest predictors of increased mortality to be age (less than 18 years of age), sex (female), and FEV1; this three-variable model was most useful for predicting high mortality . Mayer-Hamblett et al. showed, by use of univariate logistic regression, that significant predictors of two-year mortality included number of hospitalizations for acute exacerbation, number of home intravenous antibiotics courses, respiratory colonization with B. cepacia and P. aeruginosa, weight and height percentile, FEV1 % predicted value, and age. Colonization with both B. cepacia and P. aeruginosa was associated with the greatest probability of dying within two years (odds ratio (OR): 4.1; 95 % CI: 2.4, 6.9) in comparison with CF patients not colonized with either organism .
Although there is evidence of poorer transplant outcomes  for patients with respiratory failure who use mechanical ventilation, many centers have reported successful transplant outcomes for these patients. Bartz et al. compared outcomes for eight CF patients who underwent mechanical ventilation for 62 ± 20 days (range 3–153 days) before bilateral lung transplant with those for 24 CF patients who were not mechanically ventilated before transplant. CF patients ventilated pre-lung-transplant had significantly prolonged extubation time after transplant (11 vs. 4 days); however, no statistical difference between the two groups was found with regard to days until hospital discharge, FEV1 % predicted value one year after transplant, or post-transplant survival . Massard et al. evaluated 54 CF patients who underwent bilateral lung transplant, 10 of whom were mechanically ventilated for 14.5 ± 4.5 days (range 3–42 days) before transplant. Actuarial survival at one year was 70 % for the latter group, and was no different from that for the patients not mechanically ventilated . Proper selection of such patients is necessary to achieve acceptable outcomes.
Lung Allocation Score
In 2005 the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network implemented the lung allocation score (LAS), changing the system from one primarily based on waiting list time to one allocating donor lungs on the basis of a score calculated from multiple variables. The LAS was derived from a prediction of benefit, calculated using expected one-year post-transplant survival days and expected one-year waiting-list-time survival days. The principle objective of the LAS was to reduce the number of deaths among potential and actual lung-transplant candidates aged 12 years or older . Since implementation of the LAS, there has been a reduction in waiting-list mortality without a significant effect on post-transplant survival, particularly for low-LAS groups.
Thabut et al. reviewed data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry and identified 704 adult CF patients on a waiting list for lung transplant from 2005 to 2009. The main objective of the study was to assess the survival benefit of lung transplant for CF patients since LAS implementation. The cumulative incidence of lung transplant was 39.3 % (95 % CI: 35.6–42.9 %) at three months and 64.7 % (61–68.4 %) at 12 months, whereas the incidence of death during the same period for patients still on the waiting list was 8.5 % (6.4–10.6 %) at three months and 12.9 (10.3–15.5 %) at 12 months. Post-transplant survival was 96.5 % (94.7–98.2 %) at three months, 88.4 % (85.1–91.8 %) at 12 months, and 67.8 % (59.6–76.8 %) at three years. Lung transplant was associated with a 69 % reduction in risk of death (51–80 %) [10•]. For comparison, the percentage of waiting-list CF patients (n = 708) dying between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1998 was 28 % .
Most CF patients are colonized by or chronically infected with respiratory pathogens (e.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia). Despite initial studies reporting poor post-lung-transplant outcomes for patients with multi-drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared with non-infected individuals , subsequent studies found that post-lung-transplant survival was not affected [12, 13, 14, 15]. However, there may be an association between the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and infection, and possibly even colonization, by Pseudomonas aeruginosa [16, 17, 18••].
Burkholderia cepacia complex species affect approximately 3–5 % of CF patients. B. cenocepacia (formerly known as “genomovar III”) is strongly associated with increased one year post-lung-transplant mortality, with survival of infected patients being approximately 15–20 % lower at all time after lung transplant compared with that of other CF patients [19, 20, 21]. Even with adjustments to immunosuppressant drugs and aggressive antibiotic regimens, patients usually die of sepsis “cepacia syndrome” within the first few months. Many lung transplant centers regard B. cenocepacia as an absolute contraindication for lung transplant, although some centers have published case reports of successful outcomes [20, 21, 22, 23]. Other Burkholderia cepacia complex species, excluding B. cenocepacia, have resulted in outcomes comparable with the ISHLT registry data.
Other common infectious colonizers and/or infectious agents associated with CF are Aspergillus and non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) species. Approximately 20 % of CF patients are colonized with Aspergillus species pre-lung transplant. The presence of Aspergillus species has not been found to affect lung transplant outcomes; however, data suggest an increased risk of BOS and of airway complications (e.g. bronchial anastomosis infection) [24, 25, 26, 27]. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial species are isolated from 10–15 % of CF patients, the most common being Mycobacterium avium complex [28, 29]. NTM have been increasingly identified in the post-lung-transplant population, with prevalence of 13.7 % in CF patients compared with 3.8–9 % in other lung transplant patients [30, 31, 32•]. The presence of NTM species has not been found to affect lung transplant outcomes [31, 32•, 33••]; however, Mycobacterium abscessus can pose substantial challenges post-lung transplant. M. abscessus’ disseminated nature often contributes to diseases involving skin, soft tissues, and foreign bodies. It is not uncommon for M. abscessus to affect the thoracic cavity, resulting in empyema, mediastinitis, and lung abscess. M. abscessus contributes to substantially more morbidity and mortality post-lung transplant than other NTM species [31, 32•]. However, isolation of M. abscessus during the pre-transplant evaluation process is not a contraindication for lung transplant. Eradication using a standard triple-drug regimen as recommended by American Thoracic Society guidelines should be attempted before transplant [34, 35]. Some transplant centers require smear negativity before lung transplant. Case studies of successful outcomes were reported for patients colonized with M. abscessus . Aggressive treatment with anti-mycobacterial drugs for one year post-lung transplant is recommended. However, caution is required because of drug–drug interactions between anti-mycobacterial drugs (e.g. rifampin) and immunosuppressive agents (e.g. calcineurin inhibitors).
The incidence of CF-related diabetes (CFRD) has increased as more patients live longer, and it now affects approximately 19 % of adolescents and 40–50 % of adults . Propensity to develop CFRD depends on gender: Sims et al. showed female patients to have a greater likelihood of having CFRD than male counterparts (OR: 12.38; CI: 2.6–59.0; P = 0.002) . Complications associated with CFRD include microvascular (but not macrovascular) disease, reduced lung function, and increased mortality [37, 40•, 41]. Microvascular complications are primarily related to neuropathy, microalbuminuria, and retinopathy, although to a lesser extent than seen in other diabetes populations . CFRD related to post-lung-transplant outcomes is limited. Studies to date have not shown an associated increased risk of mortality [42, 43••, 44]. For patients who are not diabetic pre-lung transplant, CF is an independent risk factor for developing CFRD post-lung transplant [42, 45]. Although CFRD is not a contraindication for lung transplant, uncontrolled CFRD may be.
GI-tract manifestations of CF are an increasing cause of morbidity for post-lung transplant CF patients. Manifestations commonly seen in adult patients include gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), pancreatic insufficiency, biliary disease (e.g. cholelithiasis, biliary cirrhosis), and distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS). Colon cancer, although a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality, is a less common complication.
GERD has a prevalence of approximately 75 % to 90 % in CF patients [46, 47]; in comparison, GERD is prevalent in approximately 50 % to 75 % of lung transplant patients suffering from other causes of end-stage lung disease [48, 49]. It is hypothesized that increased risk of post-lung transplant GERD could be associated with vagal nerve injury (intra-operatively), immunosuppressive therapy, and pre-transplant diagnosis of GERD. Studies have confirmed a strong correlation between GERD and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). King et al. found non-acid reflux pepsin and bile salts, measured by use of esophageal impedance, to be associated with development of BOS . Other studies have revealed an association between BOS and the presence of bile acids and peptins in bronchoalvealor lavage specimens [51, 52]. Proton-pump inhibitors have been revealed to reduce the acidity of gastric contents; however, they do not reduce non-acid reflux. Palmer et al. and others showed that Nissen fundoplication, a surgical intervention, halted lung allograft dysfunction caused by acid reflux [53, 54, 55•, 56]. Given the high incidence of GERD in CF patients, early recognition and implementation of therapy is prudent to support successful long-term survival.
Pancreatic insufficiency and malnutrition contribute to morbidity and mortality for CF patients. Pancreatic insufficiency affects absorption of immunosuppressive therapy (e.g. calcineurin inhibitors). Although no compelling evidence supports routine use of supplemental pancreatic enzymes, expert opinion recommends co-administration to maintain adequate enzyme levels. Malnutrition affects post-lung transplant survival of CF patients. Madill et al. revealed that a body mass index <17 kg m−2 was associated with a 3.7 odds ratio for risk of death within 90 days of lung transplant . In contrast, Lederer et al. showed increased late mortality for underweight transplant recipients with CF, which was attributed to chronic allograft dysfunction . Underweight patients and chronically ill patients have low serum albumin, and hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin <3.5 mg dL−1) is a marker of inflammation. Using albumin concentration as a continuous predictor, Zisman et al. showed that patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia who were on the waiting list for lung transplants had a mortality hazard ratio of 1.79 associated with each 0.5 mg dL−1 reduction in serum albumin concentration . Similarly, Baldwin et al. found that, compared with other diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, post-lung-transplant CF patients with hypoalbuminemia had the strongest association with significantly reduced one-year and overall survival [60••]. Overall, although being underweight (or severely malnourished) is not an absolute contraindication, aggressive measures should be taken to improve nutritional status before lung transplant.
Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) affects approximately 10–20 % of CF patients post-lung transplant, almost exclusively affecting patients with pancreatic insufficiency [61, 62]. Precipitating factors include narcotic use, poor oral intake and/or dehydration shortly after transplant. To avoid the need for surgical intervention, active measures, including aggressive bowel regimens, should be instituted before onset.
Pre-transplant CF-related liver disease is the third most common cause of mortality of CF patients. However, serious liver disease associated with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension resulting in synthetic dysfunction is prevalent in 10 % of CF patients only . Despite evidence of CF-associated liver cirrhosis with preserved synthetic function, Nash et al. reported that carefully selected CF patients can tolerate lung transplant, with outcomes comparable with those for CF patients without CF-related liver disease [64•]. Regarding combined lung–liver transplant, Desai et al. reported outcomes comparable with those for isolated lung transplant . Actuarial survival for combined lung–liver transplant for one, three, and five years was 72 %, 61.4 %, and 61.4 %, respectively. Similar outcomes were reported by other institutions . Combined transplant outcomes are probably comparable with those for isolated lung transplant because of increased scrutiny of recipient selection criteria and young recipient age.
Sinusitis affects most CF patients. Organisms identified within the sinus tract are identical with those of the lower respiratory tract. Leung et al. performed a retrospective chart review of all CF patients who underwent heart–lung and lung transplant at Stanford Medical Center between 1988 and 2005, assuming that pre-lung-transplant surgical sinus intervention would lead to reduced bacterial seeding of the transplanted lungs. For 87 % of patients re-colonization with Pseudomonas occurred, and an overall survival benefit was not evident .
Risk of developing malignancy is increasing as the survival of post-lung transplant patients continues to improve. The ISHLT registry reports cumulative malignancy risk for one-year, three-year, and five-year survivors to be 3.5 %, 14.1 %, and 27.2 %, respectively [1•]. In a retrospective cohort study of 93 lung transplant recipients with CF, Saueressig et al. revealed an 8.6 % risk of developing post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease during a median time of six months (range 3–19 months) for seronegative CF patients with Epstein–Barr virus and human herpes virus (types 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8) [68••]. Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignancy diagnosed in the general population of the US. In a recent study, Maisonneuve et al. prospectively obtained data covering a 20-year period from the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient registry. Post-lung transplant, they found an unexpectedly high risk of digestive tract cancers (19 observed vs. 1.1 expected; 95 % CI: 10.7–26.5), particularly cancer of the colon (11 observed vs. 0.4 expected; 95 % CI: 15.8–52.2). One hypothesis suggests the combination of underlying bowel cancer risk and immunosuppressant therapy after lung transplant leads to a higher incidence for this population [69••, 70••].
The leading cause of death of CF patients is respiratory failure. Until improved medical therapy brings about a substantial reduction in respiratory failure, lung transplant remains a treatment option for CF patients. Despite the multiple co-morbidities associated with increased morbidity and mortality in CF, long-term outcomes for CF patients continue to be superior to those for patients with other lung diseases amenable to transplant. Possible areas for future research to improve transplant outcomes include surgical technique, organ procurement and preservation, and post-operative management in the intensive care unit.
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
David Weill declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Kapil Patel declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
- 3.Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. Patient registry 2011 annual report. Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
- 4.Orens JB, Estenne M, Arcasoy S, et al. International guidelines for the selection of lung transplant candidates: 2006 update—a consensus report from the Pulmonary Scientific Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25:745–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.• Thabut G, Christie JD, Mal H, et al. Survival benefit of lung transplant for cystic fibrosis since lung-allocation-score implementation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013; In press Recent work demonstrating the effect of the Lung Allocation Score for CF patients. Google Scholar
- 18.•• Gregson AL, Wang X, Weigt SS, et al. Interaction between Pseudomonas and CXC chemokines increases risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and death in lung transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187:518–26. Pseudomonas organisms probably contribute to an increased risk of developing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome with colonization.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.• Knoll BM, Kappagoda S, Gill RR, et al. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection among lung transplant recipients: a 15-year cohort study. Transpl Infect Dis. 2012;14:452–60. This study revealed the increasing prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in CF patients. Despite the increasing prevalence, non-tuberculous mycobacteria have not affected post-lung transplant outcomes.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.• Moran A, Becker D, Casella SJ, et al. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and prognostic implications of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:2677–83. An overview of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CFRD, and the effect of CFRD on lung function and mortality.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.•• Hofer M, Schmid C, Benden C, et al. Diabetes mellitus and survival in cystic fibrosis patients after lung transplantation. J Cyst Fibros. 2012;11:131–6. This study revealed improved 1 and 5-year survival post-transplant with DM. No effect on the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Valour F, Brault C, Abbas-Chorfa F, et al. Outcome of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes two years after lung transplantation. Respiration. 2012; In press.Google Scholar
- 55.• Fisichella PM, Davis CS, Lowery E, et al. Pulmonary immune changes early after laparoscopic antireflux surgery in lung transplant patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. J Surg Res. 2012;177:e65–73. Demonstrated that post laparoscopic antireflux surgery altered the inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 60.•• Baldwin MR, Arcasoy SM, Shah A, et al. Hypoalbuminemia and early mortality after lung transplantation: a cohort study. Am J Transplant. 2012;12:1256–67. For CF and interstitial lung disease patients the association between low serum albumin and post-transplant survival was strongest.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 64.• Nash EF, Volling C, Gutierrez CA, et al. Outcomes of patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing lung transplantation with and without cystic fibrosis-associated liver cirrhosis. Clin Transplant. 2012;26:34–41. CF patients may be considered for lung transplantation in the setting of known cirrhosis without synthetic dysfunction from CF-related liver disease.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 68.•• Saueressig MG, Boussaud V, Amrein C, et al. Risk factors for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in patients with cystic fibrosis. Clin Transplant. 2011;25:E430–6. Risk factors for developing PTLD in CF patients are EBV-negative and human herpes-virus negative.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 69.•• Maisonneuve P, Marshall BC, Knapp EA, Lowenfels AB. Cancer risk in cystic fibrosis: a 20-year nationwide study from the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105:122–9. This study revealed an overall low risk of cancer for CF patients. However, post-transplantation there is a significantly increased risk of developing digestive tract cancers.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar