Advertisement

Natural Products and Bioprospecting

, Volume 2, Issue 5, pp 174–193 | Cite as

Natural hydroxyanthraquinoid pigments as potent food grade colorants: an overview

  • Yanis CaroEmail author
  • Linda Anamale
  • Mireille Fouillaud
  • Philippe Laurent
  • Thomas Petit
  • Laurent Dufosse
Open Access
Review

Abstract

Natural pigments and colorants are widely used in the world in many industries such as textile dying, food processing or cosmetic manufacturing. Among the natural products of interest are various compounds belonging to carotenoids, anthocyanins, chlorophylls, melanins, betalains… The review emphasizes pigments with anthraquinoid skeleton and gives an overview on hydroxyanthraquinoids described in Nature, the first one ever published. Trends in consumption, production and regulation of natural food grade colorants are given, in the current global market. The second part focuses on the description of the chemical structures of the main anthraquinoid colouring compounds, their properties and their biosynthetic pathways. Main natural sources of such pigments are summarized, followed by discussion about toxicity and carcinogenicity observed in some cases. As a conclusion, current industrial applications of natural hydroxyanthraquinoids are described with two examples, carminic acid from an insect and Arpink red™ from a filamentous fungus.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

anthraquinone hydroxyanthraquinone natural colorant food colorant microbial pigment biotechnology mycotoxin contamination 

References

  1. [1]
    Downham, A.; Collins, P. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol.2000, 35, 5–22.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Dufossé, L. Food Technol. Biotech.2006, 44, 313–321.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Räisänen, R. Handbook of Natural Colorants; John Wiley & Sons: Chichester, 2009; Chapter 11, pp 183–200.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Duran, N.; Maria, F. S. T.; Roseli, D. C.; Elisa, E. Crit. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutr.2002, 42, 53–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Mapari, S. A. S.; Nielsen, K. F.; Larsen, T. O.; Frisvad, J. C.; Meyer, A. S.; Thrane, U. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.2005, 16, 231–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Dufossé, L.; Galaup, P.; Yaron, A.; Arad, S. M.; Blanc, P.; Chidambara-Murthy, K. N.; Ravishankar, G. A. Trends Food Sci. Tech.2005, 16, 389–406.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Chattopadhyay, P.; Chatterjee, S.; Sen, S. K. Afr. J. Biotechnol.2008, 7, 2972–2985.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Mapari, S. A. S.; Meyer, A. S.; Thrane, U.; Frisvad, J. C. Microbial. Cell. Factories.2009, 8, 24–28.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Blanc, P. J.; Loret, M. O.; Santerre, A. L.; Pareilleux, A.; Promé, D.; Promé, J. C. J. Food Sci.1995, 59, 862–865.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Hajjaj, H.; Blanc, P. J.; Groussac, E.; Goma, G.; Uribelarrea, J. L.; Loubiere, P. Enzyme Microb. Technol.2000, 27, 619–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Carvalho, J. C.; Pandey, A.; Batitha, S.; Soccol, C. R. Agro Food Ind Hi-tech.2003, 14, 37–42.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Liu, B. H.; Wu, T. S.; Su, M. C.; Chung, C. P.; Yu, F. Y. J. Agric. Food Chem.2005, 53, 170–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Mapari, S. A. S.; Thrane, U.; Meyer, A. S. Trends Biotechnol.2010, 28, 300–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Liu, R.; Lu, Y.; Wu, T.; Pan, Y. Chromatographia2008, 68, 95–99.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Bechtold, T. Handbook of Natural Colorants; John Wiley & Sons: Chichester, 2009; Chapter 10, pp 151–182.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Alitheen, N. B.; Mashitoh, A. R.; Yeap, S. K.; Shuhaimi, M.; Abdul-Manaf, A.; Nordin, L. Int. Food Res. J.2010, 17, 711–719.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Bonose-Crosnier de Bellaistre, M.; Nowik, W.; Tchapla, A.; Heron, S. J. Chromatogr.2011, 1218, 778–786.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Bick, I. R. C.; Rhee, C. Biochem. J.1966, 98, 112–116.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    De Santis, D.; Moresi, M. Ind. Crop. Prod.2007, 26, 151–162.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Baker, R. A.; Tatum, J. H. J. Ferment. Bioeng.1997, 85, 359–361.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Nagia, F. A.; El-Mohamedy, R. S. R. Dyes Pigments2007, 75, 550–555.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Socaciu C. Food Colorants-Chemical and functional properties; CRC Press Taylor & Francis: New York, 2008.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Drivas, I.; Blackburn, R. S.; Rayner, C. M. Dyes Pigments2011, 88, 7–17.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Liu, S. Y.; Sporer, F.; Wink, M.; Jourdane, J.; Henning, R.; Li, Y. L.; Ruppel, A. Trop. Med. Int. Health1997, 2, 179–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Locatelli, M.; Tammaro, F.; Menghini, L.; Carlucci, G.; Epifano, F.; Genovese, S. Phytochem. Lett.2009, 2, 223–226.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Kremer, D.; Kosalec, I.; Locatelli, M.; Epifano, F.; Genovese, S.; Carlucci, G.; Zovko Koncic, M. Food Chem.2012, 131, 1174–1180.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Muangsin, N.; Wisetsakdakorn, W.; Chaichit, N.; Sihanonth, P.; Petsom, A.; Sangvanich, P. Dyes Pigments2008, 77, 653–656.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Tanaka, C.; Miyagawa, H.; Kuwahara, Y.; Tsuda, M. Mycoscience2002, 43, 317–320.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Liu, S. Y.; Lo, C. T.; Chen, C.; Liu, M. Y.; Chen, J. H.; Peng, K. C. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods2007, 70, 391–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Yadav, J. P.; Arya, V.; Panghal, M.; Kumar, S.; Dhankhar, S. Fitoterapia2010, 81, 223–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Zhang, L. M.; Xie, W. G.; Wen, T. T. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim.2010, 100, 215–218.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Gill, M.; Steglich, W. Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products; Springer: New York, 1987; Chapter 51, pp 125–174.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Manojlovic, I.; Bogdanovic-Dusanovic, G.; Gritsanapan, W.; Manojlovic, N. Chem. Pap.2006, 60, 466–468.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Orban, N.; Boldizsar, I.; Szücs, Z.; Danos, B. Dyes Pigments2008, 77, 249–257.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Smetanina, O. F.; Kalinovskii, A. I.; Khudyakova, Y. V.; Slinkina, N. N.; Pivkin, M. V.; Kuznetsova, T. A. Chem. Nat. Compd.2007, 43, 327–329.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Anke, H.; Kolthoum, I.; Zihner, H.; Laatsch, H. Arch. Microbiol.1980, 126, 223–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Ackacha, M. A.; Polec-Pawlak, K.; Jarosz, M. J. Sep. Sci.2003, 26, 1028–1034.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Banyai, P.; Kuzovkina, I. N.; Kursinszki, L.; Szöke, E. Chromatographia2006, 63, 111–114.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Jasril; Lajis, N. H.; Mooi, L. Y.; Abdullah, M. A.; Sukari, M. A.; Ali, A. M. Asia Pacific J. Mol. Biol. Biotechnol.2003, 11, 3–7.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Bao, L.; Liu, L.; Wu, Y.; Han, T.; Xue, L.; Zhang, Q. Chem-Biol. Interact.2011, 194, 97–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Manojlovic, N. T.; Vasiljevic, P. J.; Gritsanapan, W.; Supabphol, R.; Manojlovic, I. Biol. Res.2010, 43, 169–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Tanaka, C.; Miyagawa, H.; Kuwahara, Y.; Tsuda, M. Mycoscience2002, 43, 317–320.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Tang, T.; Yin, L.; Yang, J.; Shan, G. Eur. J. Pharmacol.2007, 567, 177–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    Schweppe, H. Historic Textile and Paper Materials II; American Chemical Society: Washington, 1989; Chapter 13, pp 188–219.Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Rafaëlly, L.; Héron, S.; Nowik, W.; Tchapla, A. Dyes Pigments2008, 77, 191–203.Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Mishchenko, N. P.; Stepanenko, L. S.; Krivoshchekova, O. E.; Maksimov, O. B. Chem. Nat. Compd.1980, 16, 117–121.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Borroto, J.; Coll, J.; Rivas, M.; Blanco, M.; Concepcion, O.; Tandron, Y. A.; Hernandez, M.; Trujillo, R. Plant Cell Tiss. Org.2008, 94, 181–187.Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    Yamamoto, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Kinoshita, Y.; Kinoshita, K.; Koyama, K.; Takahashi, K.; Ahmadjam, V.; Kurokawa, T.; Yoshimura, I. Phytochemistry1996, 43, 1239–1242.Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    Gagunashvili, A. N.; Davidsson, S. P.; Jonsson, Z. O.; Andresson, O. S. Mycol. Res.2009, 113, 354–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    Canamares, M. V.; Garcia-Ramos, J. V.; Domingo, C.; Sanchez-Cortes, S. Vib. Spectrosc.2006, 40, 161–167.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    Bouras, N.; Strelkov, S. E. Physiol. Mol. Plant P.2008, 72, 87–95.Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    Birkinshaw, J. H.; Gourlay, R. Biochem. J.1961, 80, 387–392.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    Miliani, C.; Romani, A.; Favaro, G. J. Phys. Org. Chem.2000, 13, 141–150.Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    Van den Berg, A. J. J.; Labadie, R. P. Methods in Plant Biochemistry; Academic press: London, 1989; Vol. 1, pp 451–491Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    Bringmann, G.; Gulder, T. A. M.; Hamm, A.; Goodfellow, M.; Fiedler, H. P. Chem. Commun.2009, 44, 6810–6812.Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    Leistner, E. Primary and secondary metabolism of plant cell cultures; Springer: Berlin, 1985; pp 215–224Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    Han, Y. S.; Van der Heijden, R.; Lefeber, A. W. M.; Erkelens, C.; Verpoorte, R. Phytochemistry2002, 59, 45–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    Izhazi, I. New Phytol.2002, 155, 205–217.Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    Angelini, L. G.; Pistelli, L.; Belloni, P.; Bertoli, A.; Panconesi, S. Ind. Crop. Prod.1997, 6, 303–311.Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    Kaur, P.; Chandel, M.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, N.; Singh, B.; Kaur, S. Food Chem. Toxicol.2010, 48, 320–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    Morimoto, M.; Tanimoto, K.; Sakatani, A.; Komai, K. Phytochemistry2002, 60, 163–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. [62]
    El-Gamal, A. A.; Takeya, K.; Itokawa, H.; Halim, A. F.; Amer, M. M.; Saad, H. E. A.; Awad, S. A. Phytochemistry1995, 40, 245–251.Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    Banthorpe, D. V.; White, J. J. Phytochemistry1995, 38, 107–111.Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    Koyama, J.; Ogura, T.; Tagahara, K. Phytochemistry1993, 33, 6, 1540–1542.Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    Sang, S.; Cheng, X.; Zhu, N.; Stark, R. E.; Badmaev, V.; Ghai, G.; Rosen, R. T.; Ho, C. T. J. Agric. Food Chem.2001, 49, 4478–4481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. [66]
    Wijnsma, R.; Verpoorte, R.; Mulder-Krieger, T.; Baerheim Svendsen, A. Phytochemistry1984, 23, 2307–2311.Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    Robins, R. I.; Payne, J.; Rhodes, M. J. C. Phytochemistry1986, 25, 2327–2334.Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    Wijnsma, R.; Go, J. T. K. A.; Harkes, P. A. A.; Verpoorte, R.; Baerheim Svendsen, A. Phytochemistry1986, 25, 1123–1126.Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    Khouri, H. E.; Ibrahim, R. K. Phytochemistry1987, 26, 2531–2535.Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    Schripsema, J.; Ramos-Valdivia, A.; Verpoorte, R. Phytochemistry1999, 51, 55–60.Google Scholar
  71. [71]
    Arun, P.; Purushotham, K. G.; Jonhsy Jayarani, J.; Vasantha Kumari. J. Pharm. Sci. Technol.2010, 2, 198–201.Google Scholar
  72. [72]
    Siva, R.; Mayes, S.; Behera, S. K.; Rajasekaran, C. Ind. Crop. Prod.2012, 37, 415–419.Google Scholar
  73. [73]
    Badr, J. M. Nat. Prod. Sci.2008, 14, 227–232.Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    Liu, B.; Ge, X.; He, Y.; Xie, J.; Xu, P; He, Y.; Zhou, Q.; Pan, L.; Chen, R. Aquaculture2010, 310, 13–19.Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    Li, L.; Zhang, C.; Xiao Y. Q.; Chen, D. D.; Tian, G. F.; Wang, Y. Chin. J. Nat. Med.2011, 9, 410–413.Google Scholar
  76. [76]
    Malik, S.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, U. K.; Singh, N. P.; Blushan, S.; Sharma, M.; Sinha, A. K.; Ahuja, P. S. J. Plant Physiol.2010, 167, 749–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. [77]
    Baskan, S.; Daut-Özdemir, A.; Günaydin, K.; Erim, F. B. Talanta2007, 71, 747–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. [78]
    Choi, G. J.; Lee, S. W.; Jang, K. S.; Kim, J. S.; Cho, K. Y.; Kim, J. C. Crop Prot.2004, 23, 1215–1221.Google Scholar
  79. [79]
    Lee, N. J.; Choi, J. H.; Koo, B. S.; Ryu, S. Y.; Han, Y. H.; Lee, S. I.; Lee, D. U. Biol. Pharm. Bull.2005, 28, 2158–2161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. [80]
    Fairbairn, J. W.; El-Muhtadi, F. J. Phytochemistry1972, 11, 263–268.Google Scholar
  81. [81]
    Genovese, S.; Tammaro, F.; Menghini, L.; Carlucci, G.; Epifano, F.; Locatelli, M. Phytochem. Anal.2010, 21, 261–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. [82]
    Panichayupakaranant, P.; Sakunpak, A.; Sakunphueak, A. J. Chromatogr. Sci.2009, 47, 197–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. [83]
    Dagne, E.; Yenesew, A.; Asmellash, S.; Demissew, S.; Mavi, S. Phytochemistry1994, 35, 401–406.Google Scholar
  84. [84]
    Van Wyk, B. E.; Yenesew, A.; Dagne, E. Biochem. Syst. Ecol.1995, 23, 267–275.Google Scholar
  85. [85]
    Mohanlall, V.; Steenkamp, P.; Odhav, B. J. Med. Plants Res.2011, 5, 3132–3141.Google Scholar
  86. [86]
    Rosso, M. L.; Bertoni, M. D.; Adler, M. T.; Maier, M. S. Biochem. Syst. Ecol.2003, 31, 1197–1200.Google Scholar
  87. [87]
    Manojlovic, N.; Markovic, Z.; Gritsanapan, W.; Boonpragob, K. Russ. J. Phys. Chem.2009, 83, 1554–1557.Google Scholar
  88. [88]
    Piatelli, M.; Giudici de Nicola, M. Phytochemistry1988, 7, 1183–1187.Google Scholar
  89. [89]
    Nakano, H.; Komiya, T.; Shibata, S. Phytochemistry1972, 11, 3505–3508.Google Scholar
  90. [90]
    Sochting, U.; Fröden, P. Mycol. Prog.2002, 1, 257–266.Google Scholar
  91. [91]
    Cohen, P. A.; Neil Towers, G. H. Phytochemistry1996, 42, 1325–1329.Google Scholar
  92. [92]
    Frisvad, J. C. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.1989, 18, 452–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. [93]
    Mendez, A.; Perez, C.; Montanez, J.; Martinez, G.; Aguilar, C. N. J. Zhejiang Univ-Sc. B2011, 12, 961–968.Google Scholar
  94. [94]
    Podojil, M.; Sedmera, P.; Vokocun, J.; Betina, V.; Barathov, H.; Durackov, K.; Horakova, K.; Nemec, P. Folia Microbiol.1979, 23, 438–443.Google Scholar
  95. [95]
    Baker, R. A.; Tatum, J. H. J. Ferment. Bioeng.1998, 85, 359–361.Google Scholar
  96. [96]
    Medentsev, A. G.; Akimenko, V. K. Phytochemistry1998, 47, 935–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. [97]
    Nagia, F. A.; El-Mohamedy, R. S. R. Dyes Pigments2007, 75, 550–555.Google Scholar
  98. [98]
    Gill, M.; Morgan, P. M. ARKIVOC2001, 145–156.Google Scholar
  99. [99]
    Reino, J. L.; Guerrero, R. F. Phytochem. Rev.2008, 7, 89–123.Google Scholar
  100. [100]
    Vinale, F.; Marra, R.; Scala, F.; Ghisalberti, E. L.; Lorito, M.; Sivasithamparam, K. Lett. Appl. Microbiol.2006, 43, 143–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. [101]
    Donnelly, D. M. X.; Helen, M. S. Phytochemistry1986, 25, 2303–2304.Google Scholar
  102. [102]
    Slater, G. P.; Haskins, R. H.; Hogge, L. R.; Nesbitt, L. R. Can. J. Chem.1967, 45, 92–96.Google Scholar
  103. [103]
    Engström, K.; Brishammar, S.; Svensson, C.; Bengtsson, M.; Andersson, R. Mycol. Res.1993, 97, 381–384.Google Scholar
  104. [104]
    Van Eljk, G. W.; Roeijmans, H. J. Exp. Mycol.1984, 8, 266–268.Google Scholar
  105. [105]
    Cho, Y. J.; Park, J. P.; Hwang, H. J.; Kim, S. W.; Choi, J. W. J. Biotechnol.2002, 95, 13–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. [106]
    Velmurugan, P.; Lee, Y. H.; Nanthakumar, K.; Kamala-Kannan, S.; Dufossé, L.; Mapari, S. A. S.; Oh, B. T. J. Basic Microbiol.2010, 50, 1–10.Google Scholar
  107. [107]
    Wang, Y.; Chen, J. W.; Ge, L. K.; Wang, D. G.; Cai, X. Y.; Huang, L. P.; Hao, C. Dyes Pigments2009, 83, 276–280.Google Scholar
  108. [108]
    Barbee, G. C.; Santer, M. M.; McClain, W. R. Crop Prot.2010, 29, 506–508.Google Scholar
  109. [109]
    Kawasaki, Y.; Goda, Y.; Yoshihira, K. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo)1992, 40, 1504–1509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. [110]
    Marec, F.; Kollarova, I.; Jegorov, A. Planta Med.2001, 67, 127–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. [111]
    Inoue, K.; Shibutani, M.; Masutomi, N.; Toyoda, K.; Takagi, H.; Uneyama, C.; Nishikawa, A.; Hirose, M. Food Chem. Toxicol.2008, 46, 241–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. [112]
    Yokohira, M.; Yamakawa, K.; Hosokawa, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Kuno, T.; Saoo, K.; Imaida, K. J. Food Sci.2008, 73, T26–T32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. [113]
    Kaoru, I.; Midori, Y.; Miwa, T.; Makoto, S.; Hironori, T.; Masao, H.; Akiyoshi, N. Food Chem. Toxicol.2009, 47, 184–191.Google Scholar
  114. [114]
    Westendorf, J.; Marquardt, H.; Poginsky, B.; Dominiak, M.; Schmidt, J.; Marquardt, H. Mutat Res.1990, 240, 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. [115]
    Westendorf, J.; Pfau, W.; Schulte, A. Carcinogenesis1998, 19, 2163–2168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. [116]
    Marczylo, T.; Sugiyama, C.; Hayatsu, H. J. Agric. Food Chem.2003, 51, 3334–3337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. [117]
    Mueller, S. O.; Stopper, H.; Dekant, W. Drug Metab. Dispos.1998, 26, 540–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. [118]
    Masuda, T.; Ueno, Y. Mutat Res.1984, 125, 135–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. [119]
    Mueller, S. O.; Lutz, W. K.; Stopper, H. Mutat. Res.1998, 414, 125–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. [120]
    Acero, S.; Tabar, A. I.; Alvarez, M. J.; Garcia, B. E.; Olaguibel, J. M.; Moneo, I. Allergy1998, 53, 897–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. [121]
    Beaudouin, E.; Kanny, G.; Lambert, H.; Fremont, S.; Moneret-Vautrin, D. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.1995, 74, 427–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. [122]
    Baldwin, J. L.; Chou, A. H.; Solomon, W. R. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.1997, 79, 415–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. [123]
    Hanumegowda, U. M.; Judy, B. M.; Welshons, W. V.; Reddy, C. S. Toxicol. Sci.2002, 66, 159–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. [124]
    Dhulipala, V. C.; Maddali, K. K.; Welshons, W. V.; Reddy, C. S. Birth Defects Res. B Dev. Reprod. Toxicol.2005, 74, 233–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2012

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yanis Caro
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Linda Anamale
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mireille Fouillaud
    • 1
    • 2
  • Philippe Laurent
    • 2
    • 3
  • Thomas Petit
    • 2
    • 3
  • Laurent Dufosse
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Département Agroalimentaire, ESIROIUniversité de La RéunionSainte-Clotilde, Ile de la RéunionFrance
  2. 2.LCSNSA, Faculté des Sciences et des TechnologiesUniversité de La RéunionSainte-Clotilde, Ile de la RéunionFrance
  3. 3.Département Génie Biologique, IUTUniversité de La RéunionSaint-Pierre, Ile de la RéunionFrance

Personalised recommendations