Review of Religious Research

, Volume 55, Issue 1, pp 149–189 | Cite as

Religiosity and Fear of Death: A Theory-Oriented Review of the Empirical Literature

  • Lee Ellis
  • Eshah A. Wahab
Original Paper


Do religious people fear death more or less than those who are nonreligious? According to two theories, religiosity and fear of death should be inversely correlated. A third theory suggests that moderately religious persons should be more fearful than those who are extremely religious or nonreligious. Yet a fourth theory predicts that religiosity and fear of death should be positively correlated. Eighty-four studies were located in which pertinent findings have been presented, several of which reached more than one conclusion based on different definitions of religiosity. Overall, 40 studies provided findings supporting the conclusion that religiosity and fear of death are inversely correlated, nine supported a curvilinear relationship, 27 supported a positive correlation, and 32 indicated that no significant relationship exists between religiosity and fear of death. Chi square analyses of several features of these conflicting studies suggest that there is probably a modest negative correlation between religiosity and fear of death among persons who are at least modestly religious. However, when nonreligious individuals are sampled alongside those who are both moderately and extremely religious, the overall relationship shifts to being curvilinear, and possibly even positive, depending on the aspect of religiosity being assessed. The implications of these conclusions for the four theories are discussed.


Religions Religiosity Fear of death Belief in immortality Curvilinearity Buffering theory Terror-management theory Death apprehension theory 



Helpful comments on drafts of this paper by Dr. Malini Ratnasingam are gratefully acknowledged. We also thank Alan Widmayer for his assistance in locating several of the research reports cited in this review.


* An asterisk identifies all references to studies that are tabulated in Base-Tables 1 through 4

  1. *Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M., and David Lester. 2009. Religiosity and death anxiety: No association in Kuwait. Psychological Reports 104: 770–772.Google Scholar
  2. *Aday, Ronald H. 1984. Belief in afterlife and death anxiety: Correlate and comparison. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 15: 67–75.Google Scholar
  3. *Alexander, Irving E., and Arthur M. Alderstein. 1959. Death and religion. In The meaning of death, ed. Herman Feifel, 271–283. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  4. *Alexander, Irving E., and Arthur M. Alderstein. 1960. Studies in the psychology of death. In Perspectives in Personality Research, ed. H. P. David and J. C. Brengelmann. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Allport, Gordon W. 1956. The trend in motivational theory. In The self, ed. C.E. Moustakas. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  6. Allport, Gordon W. 1960. The individual and his religion. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  7. *Al-Sabwah, Mohamed N., and Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek. 2006. Religiosity and death distress in Arabic college students. Death Studies 30: 365–375.Google Scholar
  8. *Alvarado, Katherine A., Donald I. Templer, Charles Bresler, and Shan Thomas-Dobson. 1995. The relationship of religious variables to death depression and death anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychology 51: 202–204.Google Scholar
  9. *Ardelt, Monika. 2003. Effects of religion and purpose in life on elders’ subjective well-being and attitudes toward death. Journal of Religious Gerontology 14: 55–77.Google Scholar
  10. *Ardelt, Monika, and Cynthia S. Koenig. 2006. The role of religion for hospice patients and relatively healthy older adults. Research on Aging 28: 184–215.Google Scholar
  11. *Azaiza, Faisal, Pnina Ron, Meyrav Shoham, and Ibrahim Gigini. 2010. Death and dying anxiety among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. Death Studies 34: 351–364.Google Scholar
  12. Becker, Ernest. 1973. The denial of death. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  13. *Berman, Alan L., and James E. Hays. 1973. Relation between death anxiety, belief in afterlife, and locus of control. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 41: 318–325.Google Scholar
  14. *Christ, Adolf E. 1961. Attitudes toward death among a group of acute geriatric psychiatric patients. Journal of Gerontology 16: 56–59.Google Scholar
  15. *Chuin, Chan L., and Yap C. Choo. 2009. Age, gender, and religiosity as related to death anxiety. Sunway Academic Journal 6: 1–16.Google Scholar
  16. *Cicirelli, Victor G. 2001. Fear of death in older adults: Prediction from terror management theory. Journal of Gerontology 57: 358–366.Google Scholar
  17. *Cicirelli, Victor G. 2004. God as the ultimate attachment figure for older adults. Attachment and Human Development 6: 371–388.Google Scholar
  18. *Clements, Richard. 1998. Intrinsic religious motivation and attitudes toward death among the elderly. Current Psychology 17: 237–248.Google Scholar
  19. *Cohen, Adam B., John D. Pierce Jr., Jacqueline Chambers, Rachael Meade, Benjamin J. Gorvine, and Harold G. Koenig. 2005. Intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity, belief in the afterlife, death anxiety, and life satisfaction in young catholics and protestants. Journal of Research in Personality 39: 307–324.Google Scholar
  20. *Cohen, Adam B., and Daniel E. Hall. 2009. Existential beliefs, social satisfaction, and well-being among Catholic, Jewish, and Protestant older adults. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 19: 39–54.Google Scholar
  21. Conte, Hope R., Marcella B. Weiner, and Robert Plutchik. 1982. Measuring death anxiety: Conceptual, psychometric, and factor-analytic aspects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43: 775–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crook, John H. 1980. The evolution of human consciousness. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  23. *Daaleman, Timothy P., and Debra Dobbs. 2010. Religiosity, spirituality, and death attitudes in chronically older adults. Research on Aging 32: 224–243.Google Scholar
  24. Dattel, Andrew R., and Robert A. Neimeyer. 1990. Sex differences in death anxiety: Testing the emotional expressiveness hypothesis. Death Studies 14: 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dechesne, Mark, Tom Pyszczynski, Jamie Arndt, Sean Ransom, Kennon Sheldon, Ad M. Van Knippenberg, and Jacques Janssen. 2003. Literal and symbolic immortality: The effect of evidence of literal immortality on self-esteem striving in response to mortality salience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84: 722–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Vaus, David, and Ian McAllister. 1987. Gender differences in religion: A test of the structural location theory. American Sociological Review 52: 472–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. *Dezutter, Jessie, Bart Soenens, Koen Luyckx, Sabrina Bruyneel, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Bart Duriez, and Dirk Hutsebaut. 2008. The role of religion in death attitudes: Distinguishing between religious belief and style of processing religious contents. Death Studies 33: 73–92.Google Scholar
  28. *Dezutter, Jessie, Koen Luyckx, and Dirk Hutsebaut. 2009. Are you afraid to die? Religion and death attitudes in an adolescent sample. Journal of Psychology and Theology 37: 163–173.Google Scholar
  29. Dittes, James E. 1971. Typing the typologies: Some parallels in the career of church-sect and extrinsic-intrinsic. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 10: 375–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. *Downey, Ann M. 1984. Relationship of religiosity to death anxiety of middle-aged males. Psychological Reports 54: 811–822.Google Scholar
  31. Ducasse, Curt J. 1961. A critical examination of the belief in a life after death. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  32. *Duff, Robert W., and Lawrence K. Hong. 1995. Age density, religiosity and death anxiety in retirement communities. Review of Religious Research 37: 19–32.Google Scholar
  33. *Edmondson, Donald, Crystal L. Park, Stephenie R. Chaudoir, and Jennifer Wortmann. 2008. Death without God. Psychological Science 19: 754–758.Google Scholar
  34. *Elahi, Fereshte. 2008. Death anxiety, afterlife belief, and patients with terminal cancer. New York: PhD dissertation from Walden University.Google Scholar
  35. Eliade, Mircea. 1996. Patterns in comparative religion. Lincoln, NE: Bison Books.Google Scholar
  36. Ellis, Lee, Scott Hershberger, Evelyn Field, Scott Wersinger, Sergio Pellis, David Geary, Craig Palmer, Katherine Hoyenga, Amir Hetsroni, and Karadi Kazmer. 2008. Sex differences: Summarizing more than a century of scientific research. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  37. *Ellis, Lee, Eshah A.Wahab, and Malini Ratnasingam. 2012. Religiosity and fear of death: A three-nation comparison. Mental Health, Religion, and Culture. doi: 10.1080/13674676.2011.652606.
  38. *Ens, Carla, and John B. Bond. 2007. Death anxiety in adolescents: The contributions of bereavement and religiosity. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 55: 169–184.Google Scholar
  39. *Falkenhain, Marc, and Paul J. Handal. 2003. Religion, death attitudes, and belief in afterlife in the elderly: Untangling the relationships. Journal of Religion and Health 42: 67–76.Google Scholar
  40. *Feifel, Herman. 1959. The meaning of death. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  41. *Feifel, Herman. 1974. Religious conviction and fear of death among the healthy and the terminally ill. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 33: 353–360.Google Scholar
  42. *Feifel, Herman, and Allan B. Branscomb. 1973. Who’s afraid of death? Journal of Abnormal Psychology 81: 282–288.Google Scholar
  43. Flere, Sergej, and Rudi Klanjsek. 2008. Serbian orthodox religiousness: An empirical and comparative portrait. Review of Religious Research 50: 35–48.Google Scholar
  44. *Florian, Victor, and Dov Har-Even. 1983. Fear of personal death: The effects of sex and religious belief. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 14: 83–91.Google Scholar
  45. *Florian, Victor, and Shlomo Kravetz. 1983. Fear of personal death: Attribution, structure and relation to religious belief. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 44: 600–607.Google Scholar
  46. *Florian, Victor, and Mario Mikulincer. 1992. The impact of death-risk experiences and religiosity on the fear of personal death: The case of Israeli soldiers in Lebanon. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 26: 101–111.Google Scholar
  47. *Franks, Kent, Donald I. Templer, Gordon G. Cappelletty, and Inge Kaufmann. 1990. Exploration of death anxiety as a function of religious variables in gay men with and without AIDS. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 22: 43–50.Google Scholar
  48. *Friedman, Mike. 2008. Religious fundamentalism and responses to mortality salience: A quantitative text analysis. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 18: 216–237.Google Scholar
  49. *Gibbs, Harriet W., and Jeanne Achterberg-Lawlis, J. 1978. Spiritual values and death anxiety: Implication for counselling with terminal cancer patients. Journal of Counselling Psychology 25: 563–569.Google Scholar
  50. Goldenberg, J.L., T. Pyszczynski, J. Greenberg, and S. Solomon. 2000. Fleeing the body: A terror management perspective on the problem of human corporeality. Personality and Social Psychology Review 4: 200–218.Google Scholar
  51. Greenberg, Jeff, Tom Pyszczynski, Sheldon Solomon, Abram Rosenblatt, Mitchell Veeder, Shari Kirkland, and Deborah Lyon. 1990. Evidence for terror management theory II: The effects of mortality salience on reactions to those who threaten or bolster the cultural worldview. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58: 308–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Greenberg, Jeff, Sheldon Solomon, and Tom Pyszczynski. 1997. Terror management theory of self-esteem and cultural worldviews: Empirical assessments and conceptual refinements. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 29: 61–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. *Hamama-Raz, Yaira, Zahava Solomon, and Avrahm Ohry, 2000. Fear of personal death among physicians. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 41: 139–149.Google Scholar
  54. *Harding, Stephen, Kevin J. Flannelly, Andrew J. Weaver, and Karen G. Costa. 2005. The influence of religion on death anxiety and death acceptance. Mental Health, Religion and Culture 8: 253–261.Google Scholar
  55. Harrawood, L.K. 2009. Measuring spirituality, religiosity, and denial in individuals working in funeral service to predict death anxiety. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 60: 129–142.Google Scholar
  56. *Hoelter, Jon W., and Rita J. Epley. 1979. Religious correlates of fear of death. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 18: 404–411.Google Scholar
  57. Hood, Ralph W. 1985. The conceptualization of religious purity in Allport’s typology. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 24: 413–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. *Hooper, Thornton, and Barnard Spilka. 1970. Some meanings and correlates of future time and death among college students. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 1: 49–56.Google Scholar
  59. *Hui, Victoria K.-Y., and Helene Fung. 2009. Mortality anxiety as a function of intrinsic religiosity and perceived purpose in life. Death Studies 33: 30–50.Google Scholar
  60. Hunt, Richard A., and Morton King. 1971. The intrinsic-extrinsic concept. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 10: 339–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. *Jeffers, Frances C., Claude R. Nichols, and Carl Eisdorfer. 1961. Attitudes of older persons toward death: A preliminary study. Journal of Gerontology 16: 53–56.Google Scholar
  62. Johnson, Byron R., Spencer De Li, David B. Larson, and Micheal McCullough. 2000. A systematic review of the religiosity and delinquency literature: A research note. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 16: 32–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jonas, E., and P. Fischer. 2006. Terror management and religion: Evidence that intrinsic religiousness mitigates worldview defense following mortality salience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91: 553–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jung, Carl. 1969. The soul and death. In The collected works of C. G. Jung (2nd ed., Vol. 8). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. (Original work published in 1934).Google Scholar
  65. *Kahoe, Richard D., and Rebecca F. Dunn. 1975. The fear of death and religious attitudes and behaviour. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 14: 379–382.Google Scholar
  66. *Kalish, Richard A. 1963. Some variables in death attitudes. Journal of Social Psychology 59: 137–145.Google Scholar
  67. Kirkpatrick, Lee A., and Carlos D. Navarrete. 2007. Reports of my death anxiety have been greatly exaggerated: A critique of terror management theory from an evolutionary perspective. Psychological Inquiry 17: 288–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. *Koenig, Harold G. 1988. Religious behaviors and death anxiety in later life. Hospice Journal 4: 3–24.Google Scholar
  69. *Kraft, William A., Walter J. Litwin, and Scott E. Barber. 1987. Religious orientation and assertiveness: Relationship to death anxiety. Journal of Social Psychology 127: 93–95.Google Scholar
  70. *Kurlychek, Robert T. 1976. Assessment of death acceptance: A proposed scale. Psychology 13: 19–20.Google Scholar
  71. Lazar, Aryeh. 2006. Fear of personal death as a predictor of motivation for religious behavior. Review of Religious Research 48: 179–189.Google Scholar
  72. *Leming, Michael R. 1979. Religion and death: A test of Homans. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 10: 47–359.Google Scholar
  73. *Lin, Amy H.-M.H. 2003. Factors related to attitudes toward death among American and Chinese older adults. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 47: 3–23.Google Scholar
  74. *Long, Dennis D., and Salma Elghanemi. 1987. Religious correlates of fear of death among Saudi Arabians. Death Studies 11: 89–97.Google Scholar
  75. *Lundh, Lars-Gunnar, and Vidka Radon. 1998. Death anxiety as a function of belief in an afterlife: A comparison between a questionnaire measure and a stroop measure of death anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences 25: 487–494.Google Scholar
  76. *Maltby, John, and Lisa Day. 2000. Depressive symptoms and religious orientation: Examining the relationship between religiosity and depression within the context of other correlates of depression. Personality and Individual Differences 28: 383–393.Google Scholar
  77. Martens, Andy, Jamie L. Goldenberg, and Jeff Greenberg. 2005. A terror management perspective on ageism. Journal of Social Issues 61: 223–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. *Martin, David, and Lawrence S. Wrightsman Jr. 1965. The relationship between religious behavior and concern about death. Journal of Social Psychology 65: 317–323.Google Scholar
  79. *McMordie, William. R. 1981. Religiosity and fear of death: Strength of belief system. Psychological Reports 49: 921–922.Google Scholar
  80. Miller, Alan S., and John P. Hoffmann. 1995. Risk and religion: An explanation of gender differences in religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 34: 63–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Moberg, David O. 1965. Religiosity in old age. Gerontology 5: 78–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. *Morris, Gareth J., and Tina McAdie. 2009. Are personality, well-being and death anxiety related to religious affiliation? Mental Health, Religion and Culture 12: 115–120.Google Scholar
  83. Neimeyer, Robert A., and Marlin K. Moore. 1994. Validity and reliability of the multidimensional fear of death scale. In Death anxiety handbook: Research, instrumentation, and application, ed. Robert A. Neimeyer, 103–119. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  84. Neimeyer, Robert A., Joachim Wittkowski, and P. Moser Richard. 2004. Psychological research on death attitudes: An overview and evaluation. Death Studies 28: 309–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. *Nelson, L.D., and C.H. Cantrell. 1980. Religiosity and death anxiety: A multi-dimensional analysis. Review of Religious Research 21: 148–157.Google Scholar
  86. Norenzayan, Ara, and Ian G. Hansen. 2006. A belief in supernatural agents in the face of death. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 32: 174–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Norenzayan, Ara, Ilan Dar-Nimrod, Ian G. Hansen, and Travis Proulx. 2009. Mortality salience and religion: divergent effects on the defense of cultural worldviews for the religious and the non-religious. European Journal of Social Psychology 39: 101–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. *O’Rourke, W.D. 1977. The relationship between religiousness, purpose-in-life, and fear of death. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (11-A): 7046–7047.Google Scholar
  89. *Patrick, John W. 1979. Personal faith and the fear of death among divergent religious populations. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 18: 298–305.Google Scholar
  90. Petersen, Larry R., and Anita Roy. 1985. Religiosity, anxiety, and meaning and purpose: Religion’s consequences for psychological well-being. Review of Religious Research 27: 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. *Pierce, John D. Jr., Adam B. Cohen, Jacqueline A. Chambers, and Rachel M. Meade. 2007. Gender differences in death anxiety and religious orientation among US high school and college students. Mental Health, Religion and Culture 10: 143–150.Google Scholar
  92. *Power, Trinda L., and Steven M. Smith. 2008. Predictor of fear of death and self-mortality: An Atlantic Canadian perspectives. Death Studies 32: 253–272.Google Scholar
  93. Puchalski, Christina M., and Edward E. O’Donnell. 2005. Religious and spiritual beliefs in end of life care: How major religions view death and dying. Techniques in Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Management 9: 114–121.Google Scholar
  94. Pyszczynski, Tom, Jeff Greenberg, and Sheldon Solomon. 1999. A dual-process model of defence against conscious and unconscious death-related thoughts: An extension of terror management theory. Psychological Review 106: 835–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. *Rasmussen, Christina H., and Mark E. Johnson. 1994. Spirituality and religiosity: Relative relationships to death anxiety. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 29: 313–318.Google Scholar
  96. Ray, John J., and J. Najman. 1974. A death anxiety and death acceptance: A preliminary approach. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 5: 311–315.Google Scholar
  97. *Richardson, Virginia, Sandra Berman, and Maureen Piwowarski. 1983. Projective assessment of the relationships between the salience of death, religion, and age among adults in America. Journal of General Psychology 109: 149–156.Google Scholar
  98. *Rigdon, Michael A., and Franz R. Epting. 1985. Reduction in death threat as a basis for optimal functioning. Death Studies 9: 427–448.Google Scholar
  99. *Roff, Lucinda L., Ruta Butkeviciene, and David L. Klemmack. 2002. Death anxiety and religiosity among Lithuanian health and social service professionals. Death Studies 26: 731–742.Google Scholar
  100. *Rose, Brigid M., and Michael O’Sullivan. 2002. Afterlife beliefs and death anxiety: An exploration of the relationship between afterlife expectations and fear of death in an undergraduate population. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 45: 229–243.Google Scholar
  101. *Roshdieh, Simin, Donald I. Templer, W. Garry Cannon, and Merle Canfield. 1998. The relationships of death anxiety and death depression to religion and civilian war-related experiences in Iranians. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 38: 201–210.Google Scholar
  102. *Shadingen, Mary, Kim Hinninger, and David Lester. (1999). Belief in life after death, religiosity, and fear of death. Psychological Reports 84: 868.Google Scholar
  103. *Smith, Douglas K., Alexis M. Nehemkis, and Richard A. Charter. 1983. A fear of death, death attitudes, and religions conviction in the terminally ill. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 13: 221–232.Google Scholar
  104. *Spilka, Bernard, Barbara Minton, Douglas Sizemore, and Larry Stout. 1977. Death and personal faith: A psychometric investigation. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 16: 169–178.Google Scholar
  105. *Stewart, David W. 1975. Religious correlates of fear of death. Journal of Thanatology 3: 161–164.Google Scholar
  106. *Suhail, Kausar, and Saima Akram. 2002. Correlates of death anxiety in Pakistan. Death Studies 26: 39–50.Google Scholar
  107. *Swanson, Julie L., and Kevin R. Byrd. 1998. Death anxiety in young adults as a function of religious orientation, guilt, and separation-individuation conflict. Death Studies 22: 257–268.Google Scholar
  108. *Swenson, Wendell M. 1961. Attitudes toward death in an aged population. Journal of Gerontology 16: 49–54.Google Scholar
  109. Templer, Donald I. 1970. The construction and validation of a death anxiety scale. Journal of General Psychology 82: 165–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. *Templer, Donald I. 1972. Death anxiety in religiously very involved persons. Psychological Reports 31: 361–362.Google Scholar
  111. *Templer, Donald I., and Elsie Dotson. 1970. Religious correlates of death anxiety. Psychological Reports 26: 895–897.Google Scholar
  112. *Templer, Donald I., and Carol F. Ruff. 1975. The relationship between death anxiety and religion in psychiatric patients. Journal of Thanatology 3: 165–168.Google Scholar
  113. *Thorson, James A., and F. C. Powell. 1990. Meanings of death and intrinsic religiosity. Journal of Clinical Psychology 46: 379–391.Google Scholar
  114. Vail, Kenneth E., Zachary K. Rothschild, Dave R. Weise, Sheldon Solomon, Tom Pyszczynski, and Jeff Greenberg. 2010. A terror management analysis of the psychological functions of religion. Personality and Social Psychology Review 14: 84–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. *Van Hiel, Alain, and Maaten Vansteenkiste. 2009. Ambitions fulfilled? The Effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults’ ego-integrity and death attitudes. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 68: 27–51.Google Scholar
  116. *Williams, Robert L., and Spurgeon Cole. 1968. Religiosity, generalized anxiety, and apprehension concerning death. Journal of Social Psychology 75: 111–118.Google Scholar
  117. *Wink, Paul, and Julia Scott. 2005. Does religiousness buffer against the fear of death and dying in late adulthood? Findings from a longitudinal study. Journal of Gerontology 60B: 207–214.Google Scholar
  118. *Wittkowski, Joachim. 1988. Relationship between religiosity and attitudes towards death and dying in a middle-aged sample. Personality and Individual Differences 9: 307–312.Google Scholar
  119. *Yang, Shu Ching, and Shih-Fen Chen. 2009. The study of personal construct of death and fear of death among Taiwanese adolescents. Death Studies 33: 913–940.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Religious Research Association, Inc. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anthropology and SociologyUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations