Advertisement

Microstructural Characterization of the Deleterious Effects of Gaseous Carburization on Petrochemical Process Equipment

  • 12 Accesses

Abstract

A manifold pipe made of the wrought Incoloy 800H and handling gaseous hydrocarbons at 820 °C has developed longitudinal cracks leading to unscheduled plant shutdown short of about 17% of the expected service life. The respective hydrocarbons result from steam reforming of methane to produce hydrogen in a series of furnace tubes attached to the pipe and externally heated by outside burners. It is shown that the cracks are of intergranular nature and have resulted from massive precipitation of grain boundary carbides particularly the extremely hard and brittle M7C3-type. This is correlated with substantial absorption of elemental carbon released by chemical reactions among carbonaceous gases and subjecting the pipe to carburization attack. However, the role of possible higher than normal external firing temperature in accelerating the carburization and creep rates could not be ruled out. This can occur to compensate for the insulating effect of coke deposited at the inner surface.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 293

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. 1.

    U.R. Chaudhuri, Fundamentals of Petroleum and Petrochemical Engineering (CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, New York, 2011), p. 101

  2. 2.

    G.Y. Lai, High Temperature Corrosion and Materials Applications (Materials Park, Ohio, ASM International, 2007), p. 97

  3. 3.

    J. Blackburn, Carburization in steam reformer and steam cracking processes In: Carburization in High Temperature Process Plant Materials, J. Norton, coordinator, (Commission of the European Communities Report No. EUR 7773, Office of Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxemburg, 1981) p. 7.

  4. 4.

    M. Golombok, Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming. J. Chem. Edu. 81, 228–231 (2004)

  5. 5.

    ICOLOY alloy 800H - Special Metals, Publication Number SMC-047 (2004). https://www.specialmetals.com/assets/smc/documents/alloys/incoloy/incoloy-alloys-800h-800ht.pdf

  6. 6.

    H.M. Tawancy, Correlation between resistance to carburization and resistance to oxidation of selected high-temperature alloys. Oxid. Met. 83, 167–185 (2014)

  7. 7.

    H.M. Tawancy, N.M. Abbas, Mechanism of carburization of high-temperature alloys. J. Mater. Sci. 27, 1061–1069 (1992)

  8. 8.

    H.M. Tawancy, On the relationship between dislocation creep strength and microstructure of a solid-solution strengthened Ni-base superalloy. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 28, 2036–2044 (2019)

  9. 9.

    W. Vermeirsch, Study of the formation and the types of carbides occurring in eat-resistant chromium-nickel steels, J. Norton, coordinator, Carburization in High Temperature Process Plant Materials (Commission of the European Communities Report No. EUR 7773, Office of Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxemburg, 1981) p. 26.

  10. 10.

    S.S. Rattan, Strength of Materials, 2nd edn. (McGraw Hill, New York, 2011), p. 580

Download references

Acknowledgements

It is a pleasure to acknowledge the support provided by King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals and the Center for Engineering Research.

Author information

Correspondence to H. M. Tawancy.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tawancy, H.M. Microstructural Characterization of the Deleterious Effects of Gaseous Carburization on Petrochemical Process Equipment. Metallogr. Microstruct. Anal. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13632-020-00610-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Fe–Ni–Cr alloys
  • Microstructure
  • Carburization
  • Intergranular cracks