Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis

, Volume 8, Issue 5, pp 713–725 | Cite as

Friction Stir Spot Vibration Welding: Improving the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al5083 Joint

  • Behrouz BagheriEmail author
  • Ali Akbar Mahdian Rizi
  • Mahmoud Abbasi
  • Mohammad Givi
Technical Article


In this study, a modified version of friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is applied to join Al5083 specimens. In respect to conventional FSSW, this new method leads to better characteristics, finer grain sizes in the stir zone and higher mechanical properties. In this method, the workpiece is vibrated normal to tool axis direction during FSSW. This process is entitled friction stir spot vibration welding (FSSVW). The finite element method (FEM) was used to validate the experimental results. The FEM and experimental results had a good agreement. The microstructure of the welded zone was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The results showed that the presence of vibration during FSSW led to more grain refinement. This was related to more straining of material in the welded zone which enhanced the dynamic recovery and recrystallization and increased the grain refinement. The results showed that grain size of welded region for friction stir spot-welded specimen was about 35% lower than that for friction stir spot-welded specimen. Mechanical properties such as tensile shear load and hardness increased as the vibration was applied. Also, mechanical properties increased as vibration frequency increased from 28 to 38 Hz during FSSVW.


Friction stir spot vibration welding Finite element method Microstructure Mechanical analysis 



Friction stir spot welding


Friction stir spot vibration welding


Simulation of friction stir spot welding


Heat-affected zone


Thermo-mechanical-affected zone


Weld nugget zone


Ultrasonic-assisted friction stir welding


Scanning electron microscopy


Coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian


Johnson–Cook plasticity


Energy-dispersive spectrometry

List of Symbols


Zener–Hollomon parameter


Gas constant

\( \sigma \)

Static yield stress

\( \varepsilon \)

Equivalent plastic strain



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Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Behrouz Bagheri
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ali Akbar Mahdian Rizi
    • 2
  • Mahmoud Abbasi
    • 2
  • Mohammad Givi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mining and MetallurgyAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of KashanKashanIran

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