Advertisement

Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis

, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp 577–590 | Cite as

Multidirectional Forging of High-Leaded Tin Bronze: Effect on Wear Performance

  • Rahul Gupta
  • Sanjay Srivastava
  • Sanjay K. Panthi
  • Nand Kishor Kumar
Technical Article
  • 111 Downloads

Abstract

The dry sliding wear behavior of high-leaded tin bronze alloy was analyzed after multidirectional forging (MDF). The effect of MDF on the wear performance was analyzed under various loads, sliding velocities, and sliding distances. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out on wear surfaces to define the wear mechanism, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy to observe microstructures. The change in the dislocation density on the wear track was also measured using XRD peak broadening analysis. MDF alloys showed higher wear resistance than as-received (AR) alloy. The major factors responsible for the improved wear resistance were (a) improved mechanical strength due to decreased crystalline size, and (b) presence of high lead content in the alloy.

Keywords

Nonferrous metals (high-leaded tin bronze) Forming (multidirectional forging) Scanning electron microscopy XRD 

References

  1. 1.
    T.C. Lowe, R.Z. Valiev, The use of severe plastic deformation techniques in grain refinement. JOM 56(10), 64–68 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Azushima, R. Kopp, A. Korhonen, D. Yang, F. Micari, G. Lahoti, P. Groche, J. Yanagimoto, N. Tsuji, A. Rosochowski, Severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes for metals. CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 57(2), 716–735 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Xing, H. Soda, X. Yang, H. Miura, T. Sakai, Formation of fine grained structure in a magnesium alloy AZ 31 during multi-directional forging with decreasing deformation temperature. J. Jpn. Inst. Light Met. 54(11), 527–531 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Gupta, S.K. Panthi, S. Srivastava, Assessment of various properties evolved during grain refinement through multi-directional forging. Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 46, 70–85 (2016)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    O. Valiakhmetov, R. Galeyev, G. Salishchev, Mechanical properties of the titanium alloy VT8 with submicrocrystalline structure. Phys. Met. Metall. 70(4), 198–200 (1990)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Galeyev, O. Valiakhmetov, G. Salishchev, Dynamic crystallization of coarse grained titanium base VT8 alloy in (a + b) Field. Russ. Metall. 4, 97–103 (1990)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Zherebtsov, G. Salishchev, R. Galeyev, O. Valiakhmetov, S.Y. Mironov, S. Semiatin, Production of submicrocrystalline structure in large-scale Ti–6Al–4V billet by warm severe deformation processing. Scr. Mater. 51(12), 1147–1151 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Zohdy, M. Sadawy, M. Ghanem, Corrosion behavior of leaded-bronze alloys in sea water. Mater. Chem. Phys. 147(3), 878–883 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.P. Zhilyaev, I. Shakhova, A. Belyakov, R. Kaibyshev, T.G. Langdon, Wear resistance and electroconductivity in copper processed by severe plastic deformation. Wear 305(1), 89–99 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. Gao, X. Cheng, Microstructure, phase transformation and wear behavior of Cu–10% Al–4% Fe alloy processed by ECAE. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 473(1), 259–265 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Equey, A. Houriet, S. Mischler, Wear and frictional mechanisms of copper-based bearing alloys. Wear 273(1), 9–16 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. Gao, X. Cheng, Microstructure and dry sliding wear behavior of Cu–10% Al–4% Fe alloy produced by equal channel angular extrusion. Wear 265(7), 986–991 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M.I.A. El Aal, H.S. Kim, Wear properties of high pressure torsion processed ultrafine grained Al–7% Si alloy. Mater. Des. 53, 373–382 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S.-J. Huang, V. Semenov, L.S. Shuster, P.-C. Lin, Tribological properties of the low-carbon steels with different micro-structure processed by heat treatment and severe plastic deformation. Wear 271(5), 705–711 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    E. Ortiz-Cuellar, M. Hernandez-Rodriguez, E. García-Sanchez, Evaluation of the tribological properties of an Al–Mg–Si alloy processed by severe plastic deformation. Wear 271(9), 1828–1832 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. Edalati, M. Ashida, Z. Horita, T. Matsui, H. Kato, Wear resistance and tribological features of pure aluminum and Al–Al2O3 composites consolidated by high-pressure torsion. Wear 310(1), 83–89 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. La, J. Ma, Y.T. Zhu, J. Yang, W. Liu, Q. Xue, R.Z. Valiev, Dry-sliding tribological properties of ultrafine-grained Ti prepared by severe plastic deformation. Acta Mater. 53(19), 5167–5173 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M.I.A. El Aal, N. El Mahallawy, F.A. Shehata, M.A. El Hameed, E.Y. Yoon, H.S. Kim, Wear properties of ECAP-processed ultrafine grained Al–Cu alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 527(16), 3726–3732 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.K. Padap, G.P. Chaudhari, S.K. Nath, Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Ultrafine-Grained Mild Steel Processed Using Multi Axial Forging, Chemistry for Sustainable Developmented. (Springer, Berlin, 2012), pp. 219–230Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Padap, G. Chaudhari, S. Nath, Mechanical and dry sliding wear behavior of ultrafine-grained AISI 1024 steel processed using multiaxial forging. J. Mater. Sci. 45(17), 4837–4845 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.R. Davis, Copper and Copper Alloys (ASM International, Almere, 2001)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    R. Gupta, S. Srivastava, N.K. Kumar, S.K. Panthi, High leaded tin bronze processing during multi-directional forging: effect on microstructure and mechanical properties. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 654, 282–291 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    B. Prasad, Sliding wear behaviour of bronzes under varying material composition, microstructure and test conditions. Wear 257(1), 110–123 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y. Zhao, Z. Horita, T. Langdon, Y. Zhu, Evolution of defect structures during cold rolling of ultrafine-grained Cu and Cu–Zn alloys: influence of stacking fault energy. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 474(1), 342–347 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    F.E. Kennedy, Thermal and thermomechanical effects in dry sliding. Wear 100(1), 453–476 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    B. Prasad, A. Patwardhan, A. Yegneswaran, Factors controlling dry sliding wear behaviour of a leaded tin bronze. Mater. Sci. Technol. 12(5), 427–435 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    L. Chen, D. Rigney, Transfer during unlubricated sliding wear of selected metal systems. Wear 105(1), 47–61 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    O. Modi, B. Prasad, A. Yegneswaran, M. Vaidya, Dry sliding wear behaviour of squeeze cast aluminium alloy-silicon carbide composites. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 151(2), 235–245 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. Rigney, L. Chen, M.G. Naylor, A. Rosenfield, Wear processes in sliding systems. Wear 100(1), 195–219 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    O. Yilmaz, H. Turhan, Effect of size and volume fraction of particulates on the sliding wear resistance of CuSn composites (vol 249, pg 901, 2001). Wear 252(1–2), 170 (2002)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.J. Wert, W.M. Cook, The influence of stacking fault energy and adhesion on the wear of copper and aluminum bronze. Wear 123(2), 171–192 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    S. Alam, R. Marshall, S. Sasaki, Metallurgical and tribological investigations of aluminium bronze bushes made by a novel centrifugal casting technique. Tribol. Int. 29(6), 487–492 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. Kenneford, C. Oxlee, V. Rance, Application of Ausforming to Some Low Alloy Steels’, Pub. 114 on Low Alloy Steels, Iron and Steel Institute, London, UK, 91–96 (1969)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    D. Rigney, J. Hirth, Plastic deformation and sliding friction of metals. Wear 53(2), 345–370 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    T. Eyre, A. Baxter, The formation of white layers at rubbing surfaces. Tribology 5(6), 256–261 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. Larsen-Badse, K. Mathew, Influence of structure on the abrasion resistance of a 1040 steel. Wear 14(3), 199–205 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Z. Shi, Y. Sun, A. Bloyce, T. Bell, Unlubricated rolling-sliding wear mechanisms of complex aluminium bronze against steel. Wear 193(2), 235–241 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    L. Gao, X. Cheng, Effect of ECAE on microstructure and tribological properties of Cu–10% Al–4% Fe alloy. Tribol. Lett. 27(2), 221–225 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Z. Zhang, S. Hosoda, I.-S. Kim, Y. Watanabe, Grain refining performance for Al and Al–Si alloy casts by addition of equal-channel angular pressed Al–5mass% Ti alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 425(1), 55–63 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. Moshkovich, V. Perfilyev, D. Gorni, I. Lapsker, L. Rapoport, The effect of Cu grain size on transition from EHL to BL regime (Stribeck curve). Wear 271(9), 1726–1732 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Moshkovich, V. Perfilyev, I. Lapsker, D. Gorni, L. Rapoport, The effect of grain size on Stribeck curve and microstructure of copper under friction in the steady friction state. Tribol. Lett. 42(1), 89–98 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    L. Gao, X. Cheng, Microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu–10% Al–4% Fe alloy produced by equal channel angular extrusion. Mater. Des. 29(4), 904–908 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and ASM International 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahul Gupta
    • 1
  • Sanjay Srivastava
    • 1
  • Sanjay K. Panthi
    • 2
  • Nand Kishor Kumar
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical EngineeringMANIT BhopalBhopalIndia
  2. 2.Advanced Materials and Processes Research InstituteBhopalIndia
  3. 3.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology, KharagpurKharagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations