In the current investigation, we have compared the potential of statin drugs (Simvastatin, Rosuvastatin and Fluvastatin) as potential anti-bacterial agent by conducting in silico, in vitro and ex vivo studies. In silico study was conducted to check the interaction of statin drugs towards various targets of bacteria. The percentage growth retardation, bacterial growth kinetics, MIC determination, post antibiotic effect and biofilm formation assay were conducted to check the anti-bacterial effect of statin drugs under in vitro conditions. Finally, MTT assay was used to check the percentage of immune cell viability after Simvastatin treatment. Docking studies have revealed good interaction of Simvastatin, Rosuvastatin and Fluvastatin towards various targets of bacterial strains as that of the internal ligand. Simvastatin has shown good antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. pumilus, P. aeruginosa and S. enterica as compared to Rosuvastatin and Fluvastatin. In vitro results have shown concentration and time dependent inhibition of bacterial growth by Simvastatin in concentration range of 64–256 μg/ml. Finally, MTT assay have shown non-cytotoxic effect of Simvastatin against adaptive immune system. In conclusion, Simvastatin could be a potential candidate as an anti-bacterial agent against a wide range of bacterial infections. However, further studies are required to check its complete role before starting phase I clinical trial.
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Authors are thankful to Shri. Parveen Garg, Chairman, ISFCP, for providing research facility. Authors are thankful to Mr. Saurabh Bhandari, Assistant Professor, Microbiology Division, ISFCP, Moga for providing support in completion of this research work. Authors are also thankful to Mr. Anshul Ruhela, B.Tech., Ansal University, for graphic enhancement of images. Author, Anoop Kumar is also thankful to Dr. S.J.S. Flora, Director, NIPER, Raebareli for their constant support and motivation.
Animal house is registered with the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA), Government of India. Registration number: 816/Po/Re/S/04/CPCSEA.
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Gupta, M., Sharma, R. & Kumar, A. Comparative potential of Simvastatin, Rosuvastatin and Fluvastatin against bacterial infection: an in silico and in vitro study. Orient Pharm Exp Med 19, 259–275 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-019-00359-z
- Docking study
- Bacterial infections