Bioactive extract of Artemisia judaica causes in vitro inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and pancreatic/intestinal enzymes of the carbohydrate absorption cascade: implication for anti-diabetic new molecular entities (NMEs)
- 6 Downloads
Artemisia judaica is used in traditional medicine in the Arabian Gulf to treat several ailments including diabetes. The present study evaluated the hydro-methanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of A. judaica (AJ-HA) for its potential to inhibit key blood sugar modulating enzymes in vitro and its antioxidant activity with phytochemical composition. AJ-HA was tested for in vitro hypoglycemic effect by its potential to inhibit pancreatic α-amylase, intestinal α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV). Antioxidant activity was determined by assessing the potential of the extract through scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Quantitative phytochemical evaluation was performed by determining the total content of phenolics, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids. Interestingly the extract showed inhibitory potential for all the three key enzymes that are involved in modulating the blood glucose levels namely: α-amylase, α-glucosidase and DPP IV with IC50s in the range of 758.96–2447.40 µg/mL. AJ-HA also showed significant scavenging activity for DPPH radicals with IC50 of 85.89 µg/mL. Quantitative estimations confirmed the abundance of various phytochemical classes particularly saponins and tannins. As such, this is a proof of concept study wherein our results demonstrate that A. judaica which is used in traditional medicine for anti-diabetic properties contains active metabolites that have the potential to inhibit key blood sugar modulating enzymes. Our findings therefore has implication that warrants further investigation of A. judaica in animal models and further for the identification of lead compounds as new molecular entities for management of diabetes.
KeywordsTraditional medicine Artemisia judaica Diabetes α-amylase α-glucosidase Dipeptidyl peptidase IV Antioxidant
We acknowledge the kind support provided by the Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia (S-1436-0115).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
This manuscript described has not been published before; not under consideration for publication anywhere else; and has been approved by all co-authors.
- Diabetes Atlas Sixth Edition (2014) International diabetes federation. http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas/update-2014. Accessed on 18 Dec 2014
- Kazeem MI, Adamson JO, Ogunwande IA (2013) Modes of inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by aqueous extract of Morinda lucida Benth leaf. Biomed Res Int. (Article ID 527570)Google Scholar
- Moore EM, Mander AG, Ames D, Kotowicz MA, Carne RP, Brodaty H, Woodward M, Boundy K, Ellis KA, Bush AI, Faux NG, Martins R, Szoeke C, Rowe C, Watters DA, Investigators AIBL (2013) Increased risk of cognitive impairment in patients with diabetes is associated with metformin. Diabetes Care 2013(36):2981–2987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Moore EM, Mander AG, Ames D, Kotowicz MA, Carne RP, Brodaty H, Woodward M, Ellis A, Bush AI, Faux N, Watters DA et al (2014) Response to comment on Moore et al. Increased risk of cognitive impairment in patients with diabetes is associated with metformin (Diabetes care 2013, 36, 2981–2987). Diabetes Care 37:e151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Obadoni BO, Ochuko PO (2001) Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some homeostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. GJPAS 8:203–208Google Scholar
- Ombra MN, d’Acierno A, Nazzaro F, Spigno P, Riccardi R, Zaccardelli M, Pane C, Coppola R, Fratianni F (2018) Alpha-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibiting activities of polyphenol-rich extracts from six common bean cultivars of Southern Italy, before and after cooking. Int J Food Sci Nutr 69:824–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sutharsingh R, Kavimani S, Jayakar B, Uvaran M, Thangathirupathi A (2011) Quantitiative phytochemical estimation and antioxidant studies on aerial parts of Naraveliazeylanica DC. IJSPR 2:52–56Google Scholar
- Tackholm V (1974) Students’ flora of Egypt. Cooperative Printing Co., BeirutGoogle Scholar
- Tiwari AK, Madhusudanarao J (2002) Diabetes mellitus and multiple therapeutic approaches of phytochemicals: present status and future prospects. Curr Sci 83:30–38Google Scholar
- Vani T, Rajani M, Sarkar S, Shishoo CJ (1997) Antioxidant properties of the ayurvedic formulation—antioxidant properties of the ayurvedic formulation—Triphala and its constituents. Int J Pharmcogn 5:303–317Google Scholar
- Vogel G, Vogel W (1997) Drug discovery and evaluation, pharmacological assays. Springer, Berlin, pp 588–589Google Scholar
- Wyk VBE, Wink M (2004) Medicinal plants of the world. Briza Publications, Pretoria, pp 54–56Google Scholar